Sunday, May 24, 2020

Decision Making Methods - Nominal Group Technique - Free Essay Example

Sample details Pages: 9 Words: 2793 Downloads: 10 Date added: 2017/06/26 Category Management Essay Type Argumentative essay Did you like this example? TABLE OF CONTENT Page 1.0 Introduction 3-4 2.0 Explanation on Nominal Group Technique method 5-6 3.0 Application of Nominal Group Technique method 7-8 4.0 Advantages and Disadvantage of Nominal group technique 9-10 5.0 Summary 11 References 1.0) Introduction Decision making is a necessary leadership skill needed by all. Group decision making is a type of participation method in which many individuals performing together, analyze problems or situations, estimate the courses of action, and select a solution. The number of people participates in group decision-making always different. The individuals in a group may be same or different demographically. Decision-making groups may be normally informal in nature, or formally designated for achieve a specific goals. Unstructured or structured process maybe used to make decisions. The nature and composition of groups, de mographic makeup, structure, their size, and purpose will affect their functioning to some level. Time pressure and conflicting goal may impact the improvement and efficiency of group decision-making as well. In organizations many vital decisions are made after some type of group decision-making process implemented. Group decision-making should be formed from the element of teams, teamwork, and self-managed teams. In many situation groups influence their members by creating a single set of beliefs.A strong wisdom of personal character in a group sounds like it could escort to great results. In some cases personal identity been lost and replaced by identification with the goals actions of the group. There are many methods that can be used by groups such as brainstorming, nominal group technique, Delphi technique, and dialectical inquiry. Each of this designed to improve the decision-making in some way. Brainstorming involves group members verbally telling ideas or choice of action . The brainstorming session is normally unstructured. The situation or problem faced will be explain in as much detail as needed so that group members have a absolute understanding of the issue or problem. In recent years, some decision-making groups got used electronic brainstorming, which can allows the group members to suggest ideas by e-mail or another electronic medium, such as an discussion room or online posting board. Members can constantly offer their ideas secretly. This help increase the probability that individuals will offer more exclusive and creative ideas without any fear of the unkind judgment of others. Nominal group technique is a planned decision making process. The group members are required to compose a full list of their ideas in writing. Normally the group members record their ideas privately. Once done all group member will ask to provide ideas from their list until all ideas recorded publicly on a marker board. Once every idea is listed publicly, the gro up do discussion of the listed ideas and will ranking it. Empirical research on the group decision making offers some confirmation that the nominal group technique effective in providing a better number of decision ideas that are reasonably high quality. Delphi technique method also group decision making process which can be used by decision making group when member are in various locations. This technique was urbanized by the Rand Corporation. Individuals in the Delphi group will be selected base their specific knowledge or expert level of handling the problem on they own. In the Delphi technique, each group member will asked to separately provide input, ideas, and solutions to the decision problem in effective way. They will provide their ideas in a variety of ways, such as fax, e-mail, online discussion room or either electronic bulletin board. After every stage in the process, other group members will ask questions and idea are ranked or rated in some method. After an unclear number of rounds, the Delphi group finally will take a compromise decision on the best course of action. Dialectical inquiry is group decision-making techniques that mainly focus on getting full consideration of ideas. Basically, in this technique the group will be dividing into opposing sides. They will argue the advantages and disadvantages of proposed solutions or decisions. 2.0) Explanation on Nominal Group Technique method The decision making method I have choose is nominal group technique. Nominal group technique is a variation of a small-group discussion fully structured to reach consensus. In nominal group technique information gathered by asking individuals to react to questions asked. The participants need to prioritize the ideas or suggestions given by all group members. This process encourages all group members to participate so will prevents the domination of the discussion by a single person. Nominal group technique also encourages all group members to partic ipate in discussion, and results in a set of prioritized solutions that signify the groupà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â€ž ¢s preferences. This method is best used when some group members think better in silence, some group members are much more verbal than others, when there is anxiety about some members not participating, when all or some group members are new to the team, when the group does not easily generate quantities of ideas, and when the issue is contentious or there is fiery conflict. There are four steps involving in nominal group technique which is generating ideas, recording ideas, discussing ideas, and voting on ideas. As in first step which are generating ideas, the moderator presents the question or problem to the group in written form and reads the question to the group. The leader will announce to everyone to write ideas in brief statements or phrases. The group member also will ask to work silently and independently. Each person silently generates ideas and writes their ideas down. The second step is recording ideas. In this step group members hold in a round-robin feedback session to briefly record each idea. In this point no debates involve. The coordinator will writes an idea from a group member on a white board to be visible to all groups, and proceeds to next group to ask another idea and so on. Once a group suggest an idea already, they no need to repeat ideas anymore. However if a group members have an ideas provide different emphasis or variation they can feel free to add it. This step will proceed until all ideas from members been documented. The third step will be discussing idea. Coordinator will discuss every recorded idea to verify clarity and importance. For each idea, the coordinator will asks, à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã…“Are there any questions or comments group about this suggestion or ideas group members?à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚  This part gives an opportunity for all members to express their perceptive of the logic and the relative importance of the i des. The creator of the idea need not feel grateful to explain the ideas and any member of the group can play that role. The last step will be voting on ideas. Individuals in group will vote privately to rate the ideas. The votes will be counted to identify the ideas with highest rated by the group as a whole. The coordinator will establishes what criteria to be used to prioritize the ideas. To start, each group members will selects the five most important ideas from the group list and writes it on each index card. Afterward, members will ranks the five ideas selected. The rank will be given according the most important will receive a rank of 5, and the least important will receive a rank of 1. After members rank their responses in order of priority the coordinator will collects all the cards from the participants and asks one group member to read the idea and number of points allocated to each one. Same time the coordinator will record and then state the scores on the tally shee t. The ideas with the most highly rated score by the group will be the most chosen group actions or ideas in response to the question posed by the coordinator. 3.0) Application of Nominal Group Technique method In my working experience I have used nominal group method to make a decision in my department. Ià ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â€ž ¢m working at TNT EXPRESS WORLDWIDE (S) PTE LTD in custom clearance department. Our department itself divided into two which are export and import. Ià ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â€ž ¢m in export site. Our main job scope is to declare permit for shipment going out from Singapore to overseas. Our old system called à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‹Å"TNT Accessà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â€ž ¢ and use this system to declare shipment. Previously our record is 84% on time declaration but Singapore Custom urge us to achieve 100% on time declaration. In our site also we need to do that because late declaration will cause delay in export shipment which can make customer unhappy with our service. So our department need to make a decision on how to increase efficiency in on time declaration. My manager used nominal group technique method to make a decision. Our department arrange for discussion meeting and explain to us the situation. First my manager presents the problem to the group in written form and she also read the question to my group members. Afterward we asked to write key ideas silently and independently that we think possible to overcome the problem. Each of us has used our worksheets to list ideas for issue. After a while she asked for one idea from one member at a time and records the ideas of group members on a flip chart visible to the entire group. To accomplish this as quickly and efficiently she follows round-robin recording means going around the table. One idea has been asked from one member at a time then continues to ask for one idea from the next group member, and so on. She mentioned that this step important because our list of ideas will give a guide for further discussion, help us know the richness of ideas we need to work with, and encourage extra ideas. We also have been informed that if someone else in the group lists an idea which we also had on our worksheet, we need not repeat the idea. If, in our judgment the idea on spreadsheet contains different emphasis or variation, we can suggest the idea because variations on a theme are important and will help us to be creative. Some of the ideas my group suggested are increase man power by recruiting new staff, train data entry staff to input data in system more faster, upgrade our declaration system and so on. Once the ideas listed we asked to briefly discuss on each idea given. The principle of this conversation is to make clear the meaning of each item on our flip chart. It is also give chance to us express our understanding of the logic behind the idea and the virtual importance of the ides. We asked to feel free to express different points of view or to disagree and the creator of t he idea no need to feel obliged to clarify or explain on it. Any member of my group can do this role. When everyone done with discussing all the ideas each group member required to made judgment relating to the most important ideas on the list. We had given five index cards needed to select the five most important ideas from our list given. We get instruction to write the number of the ideas in the upper left-hand corner of the card. Let say, if feel idea 13 is very important we need to write 13 in the upper left-hand corner. At this time, my manager also writes 13 in the upper left-hand corner of the card she has drawn on the flip chart. Then, we need to write the identifying expression on the card. At this point, my manager writes the phrase for Item 13 on the card she has drawn. We do this for all of the five most important ideas from our total list. When have completed this task, we should have five cards in hand, each with a separate phrase written on the card with recognise numbers using the numbering system from our list of ideas on the flip chart. After each member of the group has selected five ideas and write it on separate cards, my manager asked us spread out our cards in front of us so we can see all five at once. She asks us to decide and ranked the card from most important to less important. We follow according the most important given a ranked of 5, the next important card ranked 4 and so on until the less important are given a rank of 1. My manager then gets all of the cards from all participants and placed into one large pile and shuffles it. She then asks one of the group member to read loudly the idea number and number of points from every index card while the records the scores on the tally sheet. Lastly she adds the scores for each of the ideas to categorize those ideas with most highly scored by the group as a entire. These form the most favoured group decision for dealing with the problem which was the focus of the discussion. The id eas that get highest score in our decision making process is to upgrade our declaration system. This decision currently gives good impact to my department as we implement the idea. The declaration page has been upgraded to Advanced Export Declaration. Using this system we successfully achieve 98% on time declaration. 4.0) Advantages and Disadvantage of Nominal group technique Nominal group technique is obviously most effective method in group decision making method. There are many advantages on this method. This method can generate a greater number of ideas. It encourages participants to deal with issues through positive problem solving because allows the group to share ideas democratically. Every group members encourage to contributing and this prevents people from dominating the discussion which allows everyones opinions to be heard and judged equally. Some of the obvious advantages are that voting is anonymous, there are opportunities for equal contribution of group members and distractions (communication noise) inherent in other group methods are minimized. This because no verbal interaction is involve, and less opportunity for powerful individuals to control the group. Since no verbal interaction also permitted while all scope of a problem are being acknowledged there will be no appraisal made at this time and hence there will be a freer climate. Since each individual must recognize dimensions on own, aspects which never would have been measured are more likely to be measured. In a normal discussion group some group members prefer to impound their contribution to reacting to the ideas of others. In the nominal group, equal participation issues provide greater wideness of ideas. Strong technique for preventing conformity to group pressure (adapted from CDC 2006; RECREATION AND TOURISM RESEARCH INSTITUTE 2007; WBI EVALUATION GROUP 2007) Disadvantage of this method is it requires some advance preparation, which means that it cannot be a take place w ith spontaneous technique. Nominal group technique mean to be single-topic meeting, limited to a single-purpose and it is very difficult to modify topics in the middle of the meeting. This method also needs agreement and satisfaction from all group members to use the same structured method, which some people might feel resist. Ità ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â€ž ¢s important for the all group member that they able to read and write, which should not be granted all of the members have the ability and such conditions can provide evidence of dangerous and threatening to the outcome of the activity.Group members also have to available for the required time which can difficultly but must be attempted. As to disadvantages, opinions may not meet in the voting process, ideas may be forced, and the process may emerge to be too mechanical. Even though nominal group technique can be used in variety of group sizes but it is very hard to apply it successfully with large groups unless very carefully planned earli er. Nominal group technique method only best used in a single-purpose, single-topic meeting. Good ideas can be voted out because its potential cannot be developed further. Small groups limit participation and are pre-selected. (Adapted from RECREATION AND TOURISM RESEARCH INSTITUTE 2007; WBI EVALUATION GROUP 2007) 5.0) Summary I choose nominal group technique method because it has the potential to reduce the scale of group problems because it embodies those characteristics that are necessary for that goal to be accomplished. It provides a balanced participation in decision making. There is no evaluation during the process and hence the climate will not be a threatening other when presenting their ideas. The group is not endorsed to stay on the most obvious aspect make variety of suggestions is usually approaching in this method. Lastly by using this method in combination with the problem-solving steps, the nominal group technique will result in greater group output as well as more fulfilment to the participants. (2741 words) Don’t waste time! 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Wednesday, May 13, 2020

Geography of Madagascar

Madagascar  is a large island nation located in the  Indian Ocean  east of Africa and the country Mozambique. It is the fourth largest island in the world and it is an  African country. Madagascars official name is the Republic of Madagascar. The country is sparsely populated with a  population density  of only 94 persons per square mile (36 persons per square kilometer). As such, most of Madagascar is undeveloped, incredibly biodiverse forest land. Madagascar is home to 5% of the worlds species, many of which are native only to Madagascar. Fast Facts: Madagascar Official Name: Republic of MadagascarCapital: AntananarivoPopulation: 25,683,610  (2018)Official Languages: French, MalagasyCurrency: Malagasy ariary (MGA)Form of Government: Semi-presidential republicClimate: Tropical along coast, temperate inland, arid in southTotal Area: 226,657 square miles (587,041 square kilometers)Highest Point: Maromokotro at 9,436 feet (2,876 meters)Lowest Point: Indian Ocean at 0 feet (0 meters) History of Madagascar It is believed that Madagascar was uninhabited until the 1st century CE when sailors from Indonesia arrived on the island. From there, migrations from other Pacific lands as well as Africa increased and various tribal groups began to develop in Madagascar—the largest of which was the Malagasy. The written history of Madagascar did not begin until the 7th century CE when Arabs began setting up trading posts on the islands northern coastal regions.European contact with Madagascar did not begin until the 1500s. At that time, Portuguese captain Diego Dias discovered the island while on a voyage to India. In the 17th century, the French established various settlements along the east coast. In 1896, Madagascar officially became a French colony. Madagascar remained under French control until 1942, when  British troops  occupied the area during World War II. In 1943, the French retook the island from the British and maintained control until the late 1950s. In 1956, Madagascar began moving toward independence and on October 14, 1958, the Malagasy Republic was formed as an independent state within the French colonies. In 1959, Madagascar adopted its first constitution and achieved full independence on June 26, 1960. Government of Madagascar Today, Madagascars government is considered a republic with a legal system based on French civil law and traditional Malagasy laws. Madagascar has an executive branch of government that is made up of a  chief of state  and a head of state, as well as a bicameral legislature consisting of the Senat and the Assemblee Nationale. Madagascars judicial branch of government is comprised of the Supreme Court and the High Constitutional Court. The country is divided into six provinces (Antananarivo, Antsiranana, Fianarantsoa, Mahajanga, Toamasina, and Toliara) for local administration. Economics and Land Use in Madagascar Madagascars economy is currently growing but at a slow pace. Agriculture is the main sector of the economy and employs about 80% of the countrys population. The main agricultural products of Madagascar include coffee, vanilla, sugarcane, cloves, cocoa, rice, cassava, beans, bananas, peanuts, and livestock products. The country does have a small amount of industry, of which the largest are: meat processing, seafood, soap, breweries, tanneries, sugar, textiles, glassware, cement, automobile assembly, paper, and petroleum. In addition, with the rise of  ecotourism, Madagascar has seen a rise in tourism and the related service sector industries. Geography, Climate, and Biodiversity of Madagascar Madagascar is considered a part of southern Africa as it is located in the  Indian Ocean east of Mozambique. It is a large island that has a narrow coastal plain with a high plateau and mountains in its center. Madagascars highest mountain is Maromokotro at 9,435 feet (2,876 m). The climate of Madagascar varies based on location on the island but it is tropical along the coastal regions, temperate inland and arid in the south its portions. Madagascars capital and largest city, Antananarivo, located in the northern part of the country somewhat away from the coast, has a January average high temperature of 82 degrees (28 °C) and a July average low of 50 degrees (10 °C).Madagascar is most well-known around the world for its rich biodiversity and  tropical rainforests. The island is home to about 5% of the worlds plant and animal species, about 80% of whoch are endemic, or native, only to Madagascar. These include all species of  lemurs  and about 9,000 different species of plants. Because of their isolation on Madagascar, many of these endemic species are also threatened or endangered due to increasing  deforestation  and development. To protect its species, Madagascar has many national parks, and nature and wildlife reserves. In addition, there are several  UNESCO certified  World Heritage Sites  on Madagascar called the  Rainforests of the Atsinanana. More Facts About Madagascar Madagascar has a life expectancy of 62.9 years. Its official languages are Malagasy and French. Today, Madagascar has 18 Malagasy tribes, as well as groups of French, Indian Comoran, and Chinese people. Sources Central Intelligence Agency.  CIA - The World Factbook - Madagascar.Infoplease.com.  Madagascar: History, Geography, Government, and Culture.United States Department of State.  Madagascar.

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

Sms Based E Notice Board Free Essays

string(38) " and has an integral SIM card reader\." Abstract The goal of this project is to design an embedded device which can control up to 8 devices by sending a specific SMS message from a cell-phone. This controller is extremely handy at places where we have to control the ON and OFF switching of the devices but no wired connection to that place is available. To implement this, a GSM modem is connected to a programmed microcontroller which would receive the SMS from a reference cell phone. We will write a custom essay sample on Sms Based E Notice Board or any similar topic only for you Order Now The control signal part of the received SMS is extracted and is changed to microcontroller-preferred format. In regular intervals, the modem would also send the local temperature We have selected GSM because the ubiquity of its standard makes international roaming very common between mobile phone operators, enabling subscribers to use their phones in many parts of the world. A PC which is connected to the micro-controller using a serial communication through RS232 can be used for monitoring and transmission of the control signals to the modem. The monitoring is also done by interfacing a LCD to the microcontroller. AT commands were used for controlling the functionality of modem. Main hardware requirements: Renesas SKP16C62P Starter Kit Plus This contains the micro-controller. (used for controlling the different external devices connected as per the SMS received ) GSM modem (GM28 from Sony-Ericsson) This GSM/GPRS terminal equipment is a powerful, compact and self contained unit with standard connector interfaces and has an integral SIM card reader. You read "Sms Based E Notice Board" in category "Papers" It is used for receiving the SMS from the mobile device and then to transmit to the Renesas SKP. A MAX232 chip This converter chip is needed to convert a TTL logic from a Microcontroller (TxD and RxD pins ) to standard serial interfacing for PC (RS232) A DB9 connector This takes the signals coming form the MAX232 chip to the PC. The typical applications of this serial modem is for developing a wide range of equipment like Security and alarms devices Monitoring and control devices Vending machines Utilities devices Fleet Management devices Embedded Project- ECE 5101 Page 3 2. Project Description Renesas SKP16C62P Starter Kit Plus Device 1 Device 2 MAX 232 Device 8 DB9 Connector DB9 Connector GM28 (GSM Modem with SIM card working in 850 MHz /1900 Hz) Antenna Computer (For displaying the received SMS) Figure 1: Block diagram of the project setup Initially the SMS is received from the person authorized to use this setup (destination) by the GSM modem (GM28) is transferred to the Renesas SKP16C62P SKP with the help of a MAX 232 chip. As per the AT commands given by the microcontroller to the modem, the control signal from the SMS is extracted and is used to control the devices connected to it. We have to convert the ‘septets’ of the phone to ‘octets’ because the micro-controller need bytes with 8 bits length ( The ‘septet’ is 1 byte with 7 bits length and ‘octet’ is 1 byte with 8 bits length). All this process is necessary to decode the message from SMS. A program (for extracting the control signal part from received SMS) is loaded into Renesas SKP16C62P SKP, and then the circuit is connected to the modem. The microcontroller now tries to read the SMS from the 1st memory location of the modem and it keeps trying again until the modem receives any (programmed for every one second). Before implementing the control signal part of the SMS, the modem extracts the number from the SMS and verifies if this number has the access to control the device or not. For controlling the devices, the message will be sent in hexa decimal format. The hex data is converted to the equivalent binary and the particular output is enabled. For example if the message is â€Å"AB† the equivalent binary is â€Å"10101011† this implies that the output 1, 3, 5, 7, 8 are enabled and the remaining ports are disabled. We have connected LEDs to the ports of microcontroller to show the output and their status indicates whether the ports are set to ‘ON’ or ‘OFF’. The microcontroller is also programmed to read the temperature from the thermistor every 15 minutes and to send a SMS to the destination number. Embedded Project- ECE 5101 Page 4 3. Device Description 3. 1. Renesas SKP16C62P Starter Kit Plus The SKP16C62P StarterKit Plus (SKP) is a low-cost environment for evaluating M16C/62P group of microcontrollers (MCU) and Renesas Technology America, Inc. software development tools. The SKP board provides an evaluation and development environment for the M16C/62P group of MCU. It has pushbutton switches, LED’s and LCD for user interface. Standard connector ports are available to expand the range of applications through the use of expansion boards, etc. The kit comes with an integrated software development environment, HEW (IDE, C-compiler, assembler, and linker), KD30 Debugger, and FoUSB (Flash-overUSBâ„ ¢) Programmer. A real-time, source-level debug environment is implemented using the KD30 debugging software with the RTA-FoUSB-MON Flash Programmer/In-Circuit Debugger (ICD). The Flash-over-USBTM (FoUSB) Programmer software, with the ICD, allows in-system programming of the M16C/62P flash MCU. The ICD and firmware provide a convenient USB (Universal Serial Bus) interface between the SKP16C62P board and the host PC. This interface reduces resource requirements on the M16C/62P MCU, allows faster code downloads and, can also be used with many other Renesas Flash MCU’s, SKP’s, and user’s target board. Figure 2: SKP16C62P System Connectivity (From the hardware manual of SKP16c62P ) Embedded Project- ECE 5101 Page 5 3. 2 GSM modem: (GM28 from Sony-Ericsson) Figure 3. a Figure 3. b Figure 3. c Figures 3. a, 3. b and 3. c show the different views of the GSM modem GM28 (From the Hardware Manual of GM28 Modem) The Global System for Mobile Communications (GSM) is the most popular standard for mobile phones in the world. It is the European standard for digital cellular service that includes enhanced features. It is based on TDMA technology and is used on 850/1900 MHz. We are using the GM28, a GSM modem from Sony-Ericsson. This is a powerful GSM/GPRS Terminal with compact and self-contained unit. This has standard connector interfaces and has an integral SIM card reader. The modem has a RJ9 connector through which a speaker and microphone can be connected allowing audio calls being established, but this feature is not utilized in this project as only data transfer is needed. Following are few technical details of the modem. Interfaces: †¢ Data: RS232 9–way (V. 28) †¢ Power and Extended I/Os: 5 – 32VDC (RJ11) †¢ Audio 4-wire Handset Interface (RJ9) †¢ Antenna: 50 (FME male) †¢ SIM card reader: 3V/5V interface with SIM detection Features: †¢ ME + SIM phone book management – read/write/find, call screening, groups †¢ SIM Application Toolkit Class 2 †¢ Real Time Clock †¢ Software upgradeable †¢ Audio control †¢ Fixed dialing number †¢ UCS2 16 bit data supported. Embedded Project- ECE 5101 Page 6 SMS features †¢ Supports both Text and PDU modes †¢ MT/MO CBM †¢ Cell Broadcast †¢ Concatenation – up to 6 SMS The TT4030 (SE-GM28) uses the following industry standard connectors to interface with the external application and the GSM network; †¢ †¢ †¢ †¢ †¢ RJ11 (plug-in power supply connector). RJ9 (handset audio connector) Integral SIM card reader. FME male (antenna connector). Sub-D socket, 9 pin (RS232 serial port). 3. 3. Power Connections All electrical connections to the TT4030 (SE-GM28) are designed to meet the standard air (4 kV) and contact (8 kV) discharge ESD tests, of EN 301 489-1. Figure 4 RJ11 connector as power supply to the modem (From the Hardware Manual of GM28 Modem) 3. 4. Antenna Connections The used antenna (Figure 4. a) operates at 850/1900 MHz which is suitable for transmitting and receiving of RF signals for the GSM modem (GM28) used. Some of the key features of this antenna are: †¢ Bandwidth is 280 MHz †¢ VSWR is +3. 0V Signal = 1 (HIGH) lt; -3. V Embedded Project- ECE 5101 Page 9 Pin No. Name Notes/Description 1 DCD Data Carrier Detect 2 RD Receive Data (a. k. a RxD, Rx) 3 TD Transmit Data (a. k. a TxD, Tx) 4 DTR Data Terminal Ready 5 SGND Ground 6 DSR Data Set Ready 7 RTS Request To Send 8 CTS Clear To Send 9 RI Ring Indicator Table 1 Pin description of a DB9 connector 6. GM28 in a Communicati on System Figure 10, Illustrates the main blocks of a wireless communication system using the TT4030 (SE-GM28). It also shows the communication principles of the system. The definitions in the figure are in accordance with the recommendations of GSM 07. 7. The MS (mobile station) represents the TT4030 (SE-GM28) modem plus SIM card. The modem excluding SIM card, is known as the ME (mobile equipment). The TE (terminal equipment) is a micro-controller and is a part of the application. Figure 10. a Main blocks in communication between the GM28 (modem) and the microcontroller (TE) (From the Hardware Manual of GM28 Modem) The end-to-end communication path to be established between the external telemetry/ telematics application and a remote terminal or host, via the GSM network is done through the serial communication. Serial data with flow control according to the RS232 signaling protocol operates between the modem and the external application. The modem performs a set of telecom services (TS) according to GSM standard phase 2+, ETSI and ITU-T. Control of the TT4030 (SE-GM28) is by the external application, via the RS232 serial interface, using a set of AT commands. The TT4030 (SEGM28) supports the full set of AT commands according to GSM 07. 05 and GSM 07. 07. It also supports an extended set of Ericsson proprietary AT commands to add extra functionality. Embedded Project- ECE 5101 Page 10 AT commands are used to operate the modem and have a broad range of Functions including: Configuring general parameters of the modem (SE-GM28) Setting up and controlling communications to and from the GSM Network Configuring the modem to communicate across the RS232 serial interface Obtaining GSM network status information. Figure 10. b Interface between the GM28 (modem) and microcontroller (TE) (From the Hardware Manual of GM28 Modem) The modem also supports the Voice, Data, Fax services but since these are not required for the current application, they are not taken into consideration as of now. . AT commands The AT command set is the fundamental interface with the modem. An AT command is simply a string of characters preceded by the AT prefix that is sent to the modem. The commands typically instruct the modem to perform some action or set some characteristic within the modem. The modem has two states: command state and on-line state. In command state, the modem will accept and re spond to AT commands. In the on-line state, the modem will transmit data, but ignore AT commands. Typically the modem is in the on-line state after dialing. AT commands has the following format: The command is prefixed with AT (Attention) The command is terminated by a carriage return (except the A/ command and escape sequence). The commands can be entered in upper case or lower case. The AT prefix can be in upper case or lower case, but both the A and the T must be the same case. Characters that precede the AT prefix are ignored. Multiple commands can be strung together on a single line and spaces may be included between commands but are not necessary. The command line interpretation begins upon receipt of the carriage return. These commands are used for request information about the current configuration or operational status of the mobile phone/modem and test availability and request the range of valid parameters, when applicable, for an AT command. Embedded Project- ECE 5101 Page 11 General Syntax of AT-Commands: Basic AT [=] [] Extended AT+= [] AT*= [] Read command AT+? AT*? AT? Test command AT+=? AT*=? Response command AT+ : AT* : Important AT command used to Test and Design: 1) ATD To dial a voice call from the modem. 2) AT+IPR To set the baud rate for the modem ( here for our application the baud rate is set as 9600) ) ATA To answer an incoming call. 4) AT+CHUP To hang up the initiated call. 5) AT+CFUN To set the phone functionality. Set to 0 to deactivate the modem. 6) AT+CLIP To identify caller number this command is set to 1 7) AT+CLIR For calling line Identification Restriction. 8) AT+CNUM To identify the subscriber number. 9) AT+CMGR To read the message at particular location . The location num ber is given as index. 10) AT+CMGD To delete the received message 11) AT+CMGS To send the message. 12) AT+CMGF To change the message format to PDU or Text mode. 13) AT+CMGL To see all the list of messages. 4) ATE To enable and disable command echo. 8. Installation and Functionality of modem To install this modem in the communication system to PC, the following procedure is adopted: †¢ †¢ †¢ Select the phone and modem options from the control panel. By browsing the disk for the modem drivers, the modem is selected and configured to a particular port through which it is connected to the PC. The terminal package like HyperTerminal is selected in the initial stage to check the functionality of the AT commands to control the GSM modem and later this hyper terminal is just used to monitor the serially received output. Hence finally a three way communication is established, the modem directly communicates with the micro controller to control the switching of devices externally and the hyper terminal package in PC is used just for monitoring the results (hence only receive and ground of connected to the PC). Embedded Project- ECE 5101 Page 12 †¢ †¢ The parameters for serial communication can be set in two ways; either by terminal equipment or by serial communication with the micro controller. It should be noticed that the DTR pin should be enabled high in the initial tage to turn-on the modem, for this flow control of hardware is to be taken and the communication initially is 115200 bauds/second with 8-n-1 configuration (i. e. 8-Data bits, Parity none and 1-Stop bit). Later the baud rate can be changed to 9600 bps through the AT command: AT+IPR = . The settings for the hyper-terminal should have the default input translation and ASCII setup, the emulation can be either VT100 (preferable) o r Auto-detect. To setup the serial port the following procedure has been followed: †¢ †¢ †¢ Select system from the control panel and thereby select the device manager in the hardware option. Now the exact serial COM port where the modem is configured is selected manually. Select port settings and then bits per second to get the exact baud rate. Now that the modem is configure it’s the task of setting up the volatile profile and enter the AT commands required to select the SIM memory and then extract the text message. Hence, serial communication is established between GM28 and the microcontroller using a DB9 connector with a level shifter (MAX232). A level shifter is connected between the microcontroller (SKP) and the modem/computer and null modem connection is connected for the DB9 connector. The above discussed points are depicted in the Figure 9. Figure 9 Circuit for connecting the microcontroller to the modem/computer Embedded Project- ECE 5101 Page 13 9. Short Message Service (SMS) The GSM GM28 Modem supports the following SMS services. Sending, MO (mobile-originated) with both PDU (protocol data unit) and text mode supported. Receiving, MT (mobile-terminated) with both PDU and text mode supported. CBM (cell broadcast message), a service in which a message is sent to all subscribers located in one or more specific cells in the GSM network. This feature is network dependent. SMS STATUS REPORT according to GSM 03. 40. SMS COMMAND according to GSM 03. 40. It should be noted that the maximum length of an SMS message is 160 characters when using 7- bit encoding. For 8-bit data, the maximum length is 140 characters. The Modem supports up to 6 concatenated messages to extend this function. Before we start working on the application design we should ensure the network subscription status Before the application is implemented, we must ensure that the chosen network provides the necessary telecommunication services. Else, the service provider should be contacted to obtain the necessary information. Since SMS features are used in this application, we have to ensure that these are included in the (voice) subscription. 10. PDU SMS format: There are two ways of sending and receiving SMS messages: by text mode and by PDU (protocol description unit) mode. We can switch from text mode to PDU mode and vice versa by selecting the AT+CMGF command. If AT+CMGF = 0 then PDU mode is selected and if the mode is 1 then text mode is selected. The text mode is just an encoding of the bit stream represented by the PDU mode. If we read the message on the phone, the phone will choose a proper encoding. An application capable of reading incoming SMS messages can thus use text mode or PDU mode. If text mode is used, the application is bound to the set of preset encoding options. In some cases, that’s just not good enough. If PDU mode is used, any encoding can be implemented. The PDU string contains not only the message, but also a lot of metainformation about the sender, its SMS service center, the time stamp etc. But as of now for our application we require the phone number of the caller for authentication and the length of the message and the text message which contains the binary message. Let us take a example for the text message of â€Å"abcdef†. This message contains apart from the basic text message a lot of redundant data (meta information about the sender). In PDU mode the SMS looks like: 07914140279542F7000B816187220731F700006010413283900A0661F1985C3603 In TEXT mode the SMS looks like: +CMGR: â€Å"REC READ†,†16782270137†³,,†06/01/14,23:56:1720†³,129,0,0,0,†+14047259247†³,145,6 abcdef Embedded Project- ECE 5101 Page 14 The octets of the PDU message contain lots of information, in the above example the PDU can be divided and different octets signify the following information: 07 Length of SMSC information. 1 Type of address of SMSC. 4140279542F7 Encoded Service center number. 00 First octet of SMS delivery message. 0B Address length of the sender message. 81 Type of address of the sender number. 6187220731F7 Sender number with a trailing F. (number is 16872270137). 00 TP-Protocol Identification Address. 00 TP-Data c oding Scheme. 601041328390 TP-SCTS Time stamp. 0A TP-User data length. 0661F1985C3603 Encoded Message â€Å"abcdef†. All the octets are hexa-decimal 8-bit octets, except the Service center number, the sender number and the timestamp; they are decimal semi-octets. The message part in the end of the PDU string consists of hexa-decimal 8-bit octets, but these octets represent 7-bit data. Basically the transformation of the septets to the octets is based on the GSM 03. 38 standard. This is helpful when we try to communicate with the PDU mode but if we use the CMGF command then text mode is activated to get the converted text message. So to get the message in the Text message we need to send the following commands AT+CMGF=1 to activate the text mode AT+CMGS=1 to check whether the modem supports the SMS message or not. AT+CMGR=I to read the message at the location I in the SIM card. 11. Code /*******************************************************************/ /* FILE :main. c DATE : Jan 2nd 2006 /* */ DESCRIPTION :Main Program To receive SMS from GM28 and to extract the control information part, then to control LEDs accordingly. Send the ambient temperature as SMS back to the user. AUTHORS: B. VAMSEE KRISHNA ; B. PRANEETH KUMAR */ /******************************************************************/ #include â€Å"skp_bsp. h†// include SKP board support package #include â€Å"string. h† void uartinit(); Embedded Project- ECE 5101 Page 15 unsigned char result; char sms_text[200],sms_msg[10],num_text[10]; unsigned int f,f1,t,time=0,k=0,count=0,p=0; /* Prototype declarations */ void mcu_init(void); // MCU initialization void main(void); void timer_init(void); void uartinit(void); int map(char); #pragma INTERRUPT rx_isr void rx_isr(void); /* DEFINE QUEUES*/ #define Q_SIZE (200) typedef struct { unsigned char Data[Q_SIZE]; unsigned int Head; // points to oldest data element unsigned int Tail; // points to next free space unsigned int Size; // quantity of elements in queue Q_T; Q_T tx_q, rx_q; int Q_Empty(Q_T * q) { return q-;gt;Size == 0; } int Q_Full(Q_T * q) { return q-;gt;Size == Q_SIZE; } int Q_Enqueue(Q_T * q, unsigned char d) { // if queue is full, abort rather than overwrite and return // an error code if (! Q_Full(q)) { q-;gt;Data[q-;gt;Tail++] = d; Embedded Project- ECE 5101 Page 16 q-;gt;Tail %= Q_SIZE; q-;gt;Size++; return 1; // success } else return 0; // failure } unsigned c har Q_Dequeue(Q_T * q) { // Must check to see if queue is empty before dequeueing unsigned char t=0; if (! Q_Empty(q)) { t = q-;gt;Data[q-;gt;Head]; -;gt;Data[q-;gt;Head++] = 0; // empty unused entries for debugging q-;gt;Head %= Q_SIZE; q-;gt;Size–; } return t; } void Q_Init(Q_T * q) { unsigned int i; for (i=0; iData[i] = 0; // to simplify our lives when debugging q-gt;Head = 0; q-gt;Tail = 0; q-gt;Size = 0; } void timer_init(void) { //Timer initialisation ta0mr = 0x80;//timer mode ta0 = 0x927C;//for 50 msec delay ta0ic = 0x03;//timer priority tabsr=0x01; // starting the timer Embedded Project- ECE 5101 Page 17 } int map(char c) { int a=(int)c; switch (a) { case 48: return(0); break; case 49: eturn(1); break; case 50: return(2); break; case 51: return(3); break; case 52: return(4); break; case 53: return(5); break; case 54: return(6); break; case 55: return(7); break; case 56: return(8); Embedded Project- ECE 5101 Page 18 break; case 57: return(9); break; case 65: //returns 10 if ‘A’ is entered return(10); break; case 97: //returns 10 if ‘a’ is entered return(10); break; case 66: //returns 10 if ‘B’ is entered return(11); break; case 98: //returns 10 if ‘b’ is entered return(11); break; case 67: //returns 10 if ‘C’ is entered return(12); break; ase 99: //returns 10 if ‘c’ is entered return(12); break; case 68: //returns 10 if ‘D’ is entered return(13); break; case 100: //returns 10 if ‘d’ is entered return(13); break; case 69: //returns 10 if ‘E’ is entered return(14); break; case 101: //returns 10 if ‘e’ is entered Embedded Project- ECE 5101 Page 19 return(14); break; case 70: //returns 10 if ‘F’ is entered return(15); break; case 102: //returns 10 if ‘f’ is entered return(15); break; default: break; } } #pragma INTERRUPT timer_a0 void timer_a0(void) // the timer is set for every 50 milliseconds How to cite Sms Based E Notice Board, Papers

Tuesday, May 5, 2020

Trans-Pacific Partnership (TPP) and the Controversy Surrounding It

Question: What Is Trans-Pacific Partnership (TPP) and the Controversy Surrounding It? Answer: Introduction A free trade agreement (FTA) refers to the cooperation among countries that have agreed to eliminate trade barriers such as tariffs and import duties to facilitate trade activities between the countries involved (Cui Jiang, 2012). FTAs are instrumental strategies of opening foreign markets as it reduces barriers to trade. As an economic policy, FTAs allow for exports and imports all the involved countries at low or no tariffs. Due to this, it is believed that FTAs brings about a win-win results for all the countries involved. However, economists and policymakers have criticized FTAs arguing that they are always controversial in nature, particularly due to the perceived benefits and drawbacks associated with them. Examples of popular FTSs include the Trans-Pacific Partnership Agreement (TPP), Free Trade Area of the Americas (FTAA), and the North Atlantic Free Trade Area (NAFTA). FTAs have a direct impact on employees, employers, managers, and other key stakeholders. In this regard, t his essay is going to address the controversial nature of FTAs by discussing the advantages and disadvantages of FTAs drawing illustrations from the Trans-Pacific Partnership Agreement. Trans-Pacific Partnership (TPP) and the controversy surrounding it TPP refers to a free agreement that was negotiated among 12 countries, namely Canada, Brunei, Chile, USA, Japan, Malaysia, Peru, Singapore, Australia, Vietnam, and New Zealand towards 2015 (Peter, 2016). If implemented, the TPP has significant benefits to the partner countries, for example, it would increase the access to new markets for the goods and services that are produced by the member states. The TPP was formed with the goal of providing a transparent and predictable environment for business activities. Upon its ratification, the TPP will ensure a flowing environment for investment and trade activities through the establishment of policies and regulations that are transparent (Australian Government, 2017). It will result in the reduction of costs of imports and exports to promote regional economic growth by eliminating the challenges to trade activities. Despite this, the TPP has been regarded by some partners, particularly the US as very controversial in nature because it wil l create loopholes for corporations in the US and Australia to sue one another in extraterritorial tribunals, violation of copyright rights, and loss of jobs (Peter, 2016). Advantages of FTAs One of the advantages of FTAs is that it brings about a competitive edge to the key stakeholders in such as producers and manufacturers in the countries involved (Doan, Mare, Lyer, 2015). Basic policies and regulations that bind the countries involved in the agreement enable the manufacturers of particular products in these countries to specialize in the production of good and services that they produce, after which they will receive preferential treatment in their markets, hence, increased generation of revenue. For example, the TPP aims at increasing trade activities by expanding the markets for partner countries. FTAs enable manufacturers and producers to increase their market share in other foreign countries, a step that enables them to make more profits. Key stakeholders such as the consumers of products and services in the countries involved will enjoy the benefits of reduced prices of commodities due to free trade agreements (Cui Jiang, 2012). Economists and policy makers argue that the formation of FTAs reduces the costs of imports and exports in the various countries that are involved. The reduced cost of exports and imports have a direct impact in the reduction of prices of the commodities because of the reduced costs of production of commodities. This brings about the lowering of prices at which the manufacturers offer their products to the consumers. As a result, the consumers can acquire goods and services at affordable costs, for example, consumers in Brunei and Malaysia will acquire vehicles from Japan and US at affordable prices upon the ratification of TPP. Besides, the consumers can purchase products that cannot be produced locally in their countries. FTAs are beneficial to employees because they increase employment opportunities among all the various countries involved in the partnership (Kang Bael, 2013). The formation of FTAs allows for the outsourcing of labor at a much-reduced courts from the countries in the agreement. This creates widespread employment opportunities for individuals in other countries, for instance, the FTA agreement that exists between China and New Zealand has improved the rate of employment in these two countries (Kang Bael, 2013). This has reduced the rate of unemployment and poverty, hence, improved economic growth and regional integration. TPP as an FTA was formed with the goal of eradicating the issue of unemployment among the twelve countries involved. It has rules and regulations that allow the free movement of workers from the involved countries. For instance, countries like Japan and US would offer employment of all member countries into their massive manufacturing industries. In addition to thi s, the employers can acquire cheap labor from the member countries. This lowers the cost of production, which in turn results in the cost of products and services. Disadvantages of FTAs As already alluded in the introduction, the formation of FTAs such as the TPP and NAFTA come along with numerous controversial issues. This is because of the widespread negative impacts that the trade agreements have on employees, employers, managers, and other key stakeholders in the countries involved as discussed in the section below. The formation of FTAs is controversial because it comes along with significant disadvantages to employees in some of the countries that are involved in the partnership (Sandrey Grinsted, 2008). This is because it contributes to massive loss of jobs resulting from the increased job outsourcing by employers in the major industries within the involved countries. The ability to outsource cheap labor is a major advantage to the employers; however, it is a major blow to the local employees in the involved countries because it promotes the arrival of foreigners who take away the jobs of local employees in some countries (Ramasamy, Yeung, Laforet, 2012). For example, the ratification of the TPP has been widely opposed by the American employees and labor and trade unions because of the predicted potential massive loss of jobs that it will cause in the country (BBC News, 2017). Upon ratification of the TPP, workers from Japan, New Zealand and other partners in the TPP partnership will flock into the US due to the perceived notion of readily available opportunities. Besides the loss of employment, the overflow of foreign labor will result in the reduced wages because of the arrival of cheap labor. The formation of FTAs is also a controversial topic because it is a major threat to the growth of budding industries in some countries in the involved countries (Buckley, Clegg, Cross, Liu, Voss, Zheng, 2007). This is because the elimination of the barriers allow partner countries to establish their subsidiary companies in other countries or export large volumes of their products in partner states, and this may kill the emerging firms. For example, the FTA between China and New Zealand interfered with the growth of small firms in both countries. This is because the Chinese firms gained the rights to operate freely in New Zealand, and this brought about stiff competitions in the New Zealand markets (Cai, 2012). The Chinese companies that produce similar products to those of the local New Zealand industries have stormed and dominated New Zealands local markets by producing substitute products and services in the country (Antell Wallgren, 2012). A similar scenario is also predicted in the TPP partnership as multi-national industries, for example, motor manufacturing industries from Japan and the US will kill the budding motor and other industrial manufacturing firms in countries like Malaysia and Brunei. Debates will rise over the benefits of importing cheap cars or the need to grow manufacturing industries in such countries, leading to unending debates among policy makers in the involved countries. FTAs are controversial because they reduce profit margins of local investors in the economies of the involved countries. According to Durmaz and Tasdemir (2014), the presence of substitute products reduces a companys performance, and hence, the Chinese companies have reduced the performance of New Zealands companies. Free trade agreements allow foreign companies to storm the markets of partner countries with products and services. These products and services may be highly similar, hence, serve as substitutes for the locally produced products. This significantly reduces market share and consequently, reduced profit margins. This is very harmful to investors and managers of local firms because it leads to the collapse of these firms. Conclusion In summary, the formation of FTAs is a very controversial topic among economists and policy makers in various countries. This is because of the numerous benefits and drawbacks it has on employees, managers, employers, and key stakeholders in the economy. The benefits of FTAs such as NAFTA and TPP is the increased access to markets for products of the involved countries due to the elimination of trade barriers. However, FTAs are controversial because of the drawbacks it has on the employees, employers, managers, and investors. FTAs reduces market shares and profit margins of organizations. It also promotes the outsourcing of workers, which is a major contributor to retrenchment and layoff. Finally, it kills the growth of budding industries in the involved countries due to the invasion of the market by multi-national companies from partner countries. References Cui, L. Jiang, F., 2012, State ownership effect on firms FDI ownership decisions under institutional pressure: A study of Chinese outward investing firms, Journal of International Business Studies, pp. 1-21. Doi:10.1057/jibs.2012.1 Kang, Y. Bael, T., 2013, Barriers to New Zealand-China economic integration: A case of the dairy industry and beyond, New Zealand Journal of Asian Studies, Vol. 15, no. 1, pp. 1-7. Sandrey, R. Grinsted, H., 2008, China and New Zealand: an assessment of the recent FTA agreement. Tralac Working Paper No 5. [Online]. Available: www.tralac.co.za. Antell, F. Wallgren, C., 2012, Foreign market entry: the strategic decision of foreign market entry by service firms. Masters. Linnaeus University. Doan, T., Mare, M., Lyer, K., 2015, Productivity spillovers from foreign direct investment in New Zealand, New Zealand Economic Papers, Vol. 49, no. 3, pp. 249-275. Buckley, P. J., Clegg, L. J., Cross, A. R., Liu, X., Voss, H., Zheng, P., 2007, The determinants of Chinese outward foreign direct investment, Journal of International Business Studies, Vol. 38, pp. 499-518. Cai, P. Y. (2012). Representations of Chinese overseas investment in the media. East Asia Forum. Canberra. Durmaz, Y. Tasdemir, A., 2014, A Theoretical Approach to the Methods Introduction to International Markets, International Journal of Business and Social Science, Vol. 5, no. 6(1), pp. 47-53. Ramasamy, B., Yeung, M. Laforet, S., 2012, Chinas outward foreign direct investment: Location choice and firm ownership. Journal of World Business, Vol. 47, no. 1, pp. 17-25. Peter, M. (2016, November 13). TPP: Trans-Pacific Partnership dead, before Trump even takes office. [Online]: Available at: https://www.smh.com.au/federal-politics/political-news/transpacific-partnership-dead-before-trump-even-takes-office-20161113-gso9kn.html [Accessed May 1 2017]. BBC News. (2017, January 23). TPP: What is it and why does it matter? [Online]: Available at: https://www.bbc.com/news/business-32498715 [Accessed May 1 2017]. Australian Government. (2017, February 7). About the Trans-Pacific Partnership Agreement. [Online]: Available at: https://dfat.gov.au/trade/agreements/tpp/pages/trans-pacific-partnership-agreement-tpp.aspx [Accessed May 1 2017]

Monday, March 30, 2020

Bidirectional Visitor Counter free essay sample

Visitor counting is simply a measurement of the visitor traffic entering and exiting offices, malls, sports venues, etc. Counting the visitors helps to maximize the efficiency and effectiveness of employees, floor area and sales potential of an organization . Visitor counting is not limited to the entry/exit point of a company but has a wide range of applications that provide information to management on the volume and flow of people throughout a location. A primary method for counting the visitors involves hiring human auditors to stand and manually tally the number of visitors who pass by a certain location. But human-based data collection comes at great expense. Here is a low-cost microcontroller based visitor counter that can be used to know the number of persons at a place. All the components required are readily available in the market and the circuit is easy to build . Two IR transmitter-receiver pairs are used at the passage: one pair comprising IR transmitter IR TX1 and receiver phototransistor T1 is installed at the entry point of the passage, while the other pair comprising IR transmitter IR TX2 and phototransistor(TSOP sensor) T2 is installed at the exit of the passage. We will write a custom essay sample on Bidirectional Visitor Counter or any similar topic specifically for you Do Not WasteYour Time HIRE WRITER Only 13.90 / page The IR signals from the IR LEDs should continuously fall on the respective phototransistors, so proper orientation of the transmitters and phototransistors is necessary. Two similar sections detect interruption of the IR beam and generate clock pulse for the microcontroller. The microcontroller controls counting and displays the number of persons present inside the hall is also displayed on the seven segment displays. It receives the signals from the sensors, and this signal is operated under the control of software which is stored in ROM. Microcontroller AT89S52 continuously monitor the Infrared Receivers, When any object pass through the IR Receivers then the IR Rays falling on the receiver are obstructed , this obstruction is sensed by the Microcontroller. Block Diagram The basic block diagram of the bidirectional visitor counter with automatic light controller is shown in the above figure. Mainly this Block diagram consist of the following essential blocks. 1. Power Supply 2. Entry and Exit sensor circuit 3. AT 89c2052 micro-controller 1. Power Supply:- Here we used +12V and +5V dc power supply. The main function of this block is to provide the required amount of voltage to essential circuits. +12 voltage is given. +12V is given to relay driver. To get the +5V dc power supply we have used here IC 7805, which provides the +5V dc regulated power supply. 2. Enter and Exit Circuits:- This is one of the main part of our project. The main intention of this block is to sense the person. For sensing the person and light we are using the light dependent register (LDR). By using this sensor and its related circuit diagram we can count the persons. 3. AT89C2051 Microcontroller IC AT89C205(IC2) is at the heart of the circuit. It is a 20-pin, 8-bit microcontroller with 2 kb of Flash programmable and erasable read-only memory (PEROM), 128 bytes of RAM, 15 input/output (I/O) lines, two 16-bit timer/counters, a five-vector two-level interrupt architecture, a full duplex serial port, a precision analogue comparator, on-chip oscillator and clock circuitry. CIRCUIT DESCRIPTION: There are two main parts of the circuits. 1. Transmission Circuits (Infrared LEDs) 2. Receiver Circuit (Sensors) 1. Transmission circuit In this circuit, a negative pulse applied at pin 2 triggers an internal flip-flop that turns off pin 7s discharge transistor, allowing C1 to charge up through R1. At the same time, the flip-flop brings the output (pin 3) level to high. When capacitor C1 as charged up to about 2/3 Vcc, the flip-flop is triggered once again, this time making the pin 3 output low and turning on pin 7s discharge transistor, which discharges C1 to ground. This circuit, in effect, produces a pulse at pin 3 whose width t is just the product of R1 and C1, i. e. , t=R1C1. IR transmission circuit is used to generate the modulated 36 kHz IR signal. The IC555 in the transmitter side is to generate 36 kHz square wave. Adjust the preset in the transmitter to get a 38 kHz signal at the o/p. around 1. 4K we get a 38 kHz signal. Then you point it over the sensor and its o/p will go low when it senses the IR signal of 38 kHz. This circuit diagram shows how a 555 timer IC is configured to function as a basic monostable multivibrator . A monostable multivibrator is a timing circuit that changes state once triggered, but returns to its original state after a certain time delay. It got its name from the fact that only one of its output states is stable. It is also known as a one-shot. 2. Receiver circuit The IR transmitter will emit modulated 38 kHz IR signal and at the receiver we use TSOP1738 (Infrared Sensor). The output goes high when the there is an interruption and it return back to low after the time period determined by the capacitor and resistor in the circuit. I. e. around 1 second. CL100 is to trigger the IC555 which is configured as monostable multivibrator. So when anybody crosses the transmitter receive pair the output from TSOP sensor will high and microcontroller will know that the interruption and decide whether increment the count decrement from the loaded program. After receiving signal from sensor microcontroller will define whether it was enter or exit by using following algorithm.. 1 . If the sensor 1 is interrupted first then the microcontroller will look for the sensor 2. And if it is interrupted then the microcontroller will increment the count . 2. If the sensor 2 is interrupted first then the microcontroller will look for the sensor 1. And if it is interrupted then the microcontroller will decrement the count. Advantage o Low cost o Easy to use o Implement in single door Disadvantage It is used only when one single person cuts the rays of the sensor hence it cannot be used when two person cross simultaneously†¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦. CODE : If you need the code of this project please join this site as member . After joining as member post your request in comments .. Dont write your mail id . Remember the coding of this project will be strictly given to the members of this site only

Saturday, March 7, 2020

Second Great Awakening. essays

Second Great Awakening. essays In this chapter we learn about the Second Great Awakening, but more specifically, the impact it had on people, and the class of people it impacted the most. In our first excerpt, which is the only secondary source, we read from Paul E. Johnson who believes the second revival of religion in the Rochester area and economic change in the area were directly related. In the next sources, which are all primary now, we look at two maps of Western New York. One can observe the change in population density in the area. Once master and wage earner had different social worlds, the population of Rochester was no longer as condensed as it was once before. Source 3 is an essay from Alexis de Toqueville discussing the condition of Americans. Toqueville expresses his beliefs that while the working classes social conditions become equal they feel as though they are in control of their own destiny. Source 4 is an attack on the revivals which basically states the revival is a hoax and not beneficial t o those in lower class levels. Source 5 and 6 is a letter and verse in defense towards the revivals exuberating how wonderful they really are. Source 7 is a painting of African Americans supporting the revivals. Due to the facts that most, if not all were slaves at that time, they must have taken great salvation from the revivals. Source 8 is an excerpt from the Book of Mormon, which illustrates once sinners, had confessed to God, they will be forever redeemed and are free forever. However, the contrary, those who give their spirit to the devil, will have him reign over them in his own kingdom. Source 9 describes a young boys point of view in 1874, of working for a wealthy farmer and how it was always about work. There was never an emotional connection made between worker and employer as it once had been. Sources 10 described the working conditions of the journeymen. Source 11 showed how many people were in each class. The journeymen had 62.1% of the men, ...

Thursday, February 20, 2020

Dred Scott v. Sandford (1875) Term Paper Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1250 words

Dred Scott v. Sandford (1875) - Term Paper Example This case was and has still remained to be one of the most significant cases that were ever heard in the US Supreme Court: hence, my reason for choosing it. Specifically, this case through its outcome that was controversial led to the civil war outbreak between the northern and southern American states (Konig, Finkelman & Bracey, 2010). The main subject matter in this case is noisy historical and constitutional debates that led to the outbreak of American Civil War and which also propelled Abraham Lincoln to White House as the President of America. His outright opposition of the ruling of the Supreme Court, which galvanized the abolition movement, spurred the resurgence of his political career. Additionally, this case outline the concept of citizenship as being essential in attaining certain matters such suing in a court of law (Greenberg, 2010). For instance, among the reasons why Scott’s case was dropped in the Missouri courts was that him and other slaves were not US citize ns, and as such, could not file petitions in court or sue in any form. In reality, the court acknowledged that slaves could be moved from one state to another without any objection from them. In choosing this case, I have also incorporated another key aspect or question used to define the case, which was whether an African American such as Dred Scott could be part of a political community/movement created by the US citizens in terms of membership (Herda, 2011). While Dred Scott did not out rightly win his freedom through the American court systems, the valiant fight he put up, with the help of his family, friends and lawyers led to the emergence of the Civil War that eventually brought an end to slavery. I find this aspect quite essential and which one can learn from with regards to defining the history of the civil war. Summary of Sources The following articles obtained from the State Historical Society of Missouri have been used in support of this case analysis. 1. Ehrlich, Walter . â€Å"Was the Dred Scott Case Valid?† v. 63, no. 3 (April 1969), pp. 317-328. In this article, the author seeks to redefine the concepts of the case of Dred Scott v. Sandford by unwrapping one of the most dodgy questions have had in their minds: was the case valid? In this article, Ehrlich seeks to determine the case’s genuineness by noting that in delivering the ruling, Chief Justice Roger B. Taney might have taken sides so as to bring a ruling against or for slavery. However, he notes that this was immediately contended with some people disagreeing and regarding the ruling as fictitious. Since these allegations could not be overruled, Ehrlich in this article seeks to verify the same on whether there were any political inspirations behind the oppositions (Ehrlich, 1969). 2. Dred Scott v. Sandford" Great Events from History: North American Series Ed. Frank Northen Magill and John L. Loos. Salem Press, Inc. 1997 eNotes.com 6 Nov, 2013 http://www.enotes.com/topics/dred -scott-v-sandford/reference#reference-dred-scott-v-sandford-483926 In this article, the theme concept is to outline the ruling by the Supreme Court in application that the Congress cannot limit slavery into the territories originally recognized for the same. This article brings into limelight the political repercussions that originated from the initial Supreme Court ruling. By not limiting slavery territories, the Supreme Court