Wednesday, August 26, 2020

Importance Of Physical Fitness In Life Essays - Physical Exercise

Significance Of Physical Fitness In Life Essays - Physical Exercise Significance Of Physical Fitness In Life On the off chance that a reasonable man is asked to answer the inquiry concerning what he likes, wellbeing or riches, normally he will reply absent a lot of faltering 'Wellbeing' since riches without a decent wellbeing gets futile. The westerners give more consideration to their wellbeing than the individuals of the orient. In bBritain they have the Central COuncil of Physical Recreation, the Scottish Council of Physical Recreation, the National Playing Fields Association. THe capacity of these different bodies is to keep the country fit, physcially as well as. In current instruction, physcial instruction and preparing structures some portion of the educational plan. In singapore schools, physical preparing is bestowed to the youthful with the view to keep the youthful fit so the future residents of the nation will be solid. Just by getting a charge out of good wellbeing would we be able to consider appreciating riches. Physical wellness is an unquestionable requirement to both the youthful and old. THe best an ideal opportunity to have practice is promptly toward the beginning of the day and late at night. On the off chance that we can't have an exhausting activity, it is smarter to have in any event a free hand practice day by day. In som nations like India and Britain, the yoga practices are drilled by certain individuals. It is said that the best type of physical exercise is to remain on one's head. Analyses have demonstrated that this activity empowers the man to get the necessary developments of the internal just as external organs and the outcome is man is additionally made intellectually alert. Individuals who don't take ordinary physical exercise are the ones who effectively become sick. The maladies, for example, diabetis and ailment can be forestalled in the event that we take customary physical activities. A body without exercise can be contrasted with a machine that is kept inert. Inertia will prompt the machine getting corroded and over the long haul getting ueseless, so likewise is it the case with human body. The Japanses are a jealousy to the remainder of the world. From a youthful age the offspring of Japan are prepared in Physcial wellness and the outcome is huge. Japan has probably the most advantageous populace on the planet and the death rate in Jpaan is low. Obviously, physcial wellness is basic evn among ladies and a large number of them don't appear to understand the significance of this. It is a habit to be so.

Saturday, August 22, 2020

HR services Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1000 words

HR administrations - Essay Example While there are an extraordinary assortment of clients of human asset administrations (HR administrations) inside an association, this paper will distinguish three key clients, recognize two key requirements for every client, and clarify how they can be organized One utilization of the human asset office is through the recruiting and terminating of workers. In such matters, all parts of the association depend on the human asset office to guarantee that representatives are screened appropriately and when there are critical disciplinary issues that they be discharged. In certain respects, the human asset division can faced with clashing needs in this classification; in such matters, it’s essential for the office to take care of a dire need, however in many occurrences handle these issues in the request they happened. Another client of HR is upper level administration, through representative record keeping; inside this administration the essential needs are for the utilization of worker records, while keeping the records secret from individuals from the association that are not conscious of them. In such matters, it’s fundamental for HR administrations to keep severe record keeping, yet additionally to remain profoundly insightful of which hierarchical individuals are conscious of the particular recorded substance. Different clients of HR benefits inside an association are passage level representatives. These workers use HR administrations for both preparing projects and remuneration and advantage the executives. In certain respects, there might be an irreconcilable situation here, as similar people answerable for preparing the division are liable for deciding remuneration rewards. In such matters, it’s important to have an outside division, by and large administration, lead reports that will factor into worker progress reports and at last rewards. 2. Recognize at any rate 3 strategies for correspondence proper to representatives at various le vels ? Among the various techniques for correspondence proper for workers at various levels, this paper will think about three primary sorts (‘Workplace Communication’). The main sort of correspondence is verbal correspondence. Verbal correspondence speaks to the most immediate and maybe successful type of correspondence. The downside of verbal correspondence is that it doesn't leave a record of the discussion that occurred, nor is it generally feasible for upper level administration to verbally address all the worries of passage level, or low-level workers. In such matters, another degree of correspondence that is compelling is composed correspondence. Composed correspondence capacities to deliver an unmistakable and justifiable message in a setting that takes into consideration the people executing this correspondence procedure to guarantee there is a record of their correspondence. In such matters, composed correspondence is significant in issues wherein the individu al accepting the message is of high significance. It’s additionally compelling when the message is intricate and it is valuable to have the option to survey the message. The last sort of correspondence that is considered is visual correspondence. By and large outwardly correspondence is actualized through introductions from upper level to bring down level representatives, yet it can likewise be executed in introductions that address upper level authoritative individuals, as a methods for educating them regarding notices, or proposing potential changes. Eventually, visual correspondence is best for addressing bigger crowds, or regarding elucidating hard to appreciate material through outline structures; at long last it can exhibit business models or models profoundly adequately that couldn’t in any case be verbalized through verbal or composed specialized strategies. 3. Portrays the key segments of powerful assistance conveyance including: ? Administration conveyance ha s taken on an assortment of logical implications, clarifying and exact meaning of the different parts of the

Tuesday, August 18, 2020

3 Women in Translation to Add to Your TBR Pile

3 Women in Translation to Add to Your TBR Pile Looking to add more women in translation titles to your TBR piles? Here are three international authors who might not be on your radar but definitely should be! Bae Suah Bae Suah is one of the hottest, most experimental voices coming out of South Korea right now. She’s published numerous novels and short story collections and has won several prestigious awards. Suah is heavily influenced by her work as a translator, having translated several books from German, including works by W.G. Sebald, Franz Kafka, and Jenny Erpenbeck. Nowhere to be Found, one of her first books to appear in English, was longlisted for a PEN Translation Prize and the Best Translated Book Award. Her most recent work, North Station, translated by Deborah Smith, is a collection of stories that embodies all that Suah is known for in her writingâ€"subverting time and narrative, intellectually stimulating questions of art and life, and epically gorgeous writing. Josefine Klougart Josefine Klougart is considered one of Denmark’s most important contemporary writers and she’s often compared to Virginia Woolf and Joan Didion. Two of her three novels have been nominated for the Nordic Council Literature Prizeâ€"arguably one of the most prestigious prizes in Scandinavia. She is currently the editor of Den BlÃ¥ Port, a literary journal in Denmark. It’s an impossible task choosing between her two novels currently available in English, so I’m just not going to do it! One of Us Is Sleeping and Of Darkness, both translated by Martin Aitken, are beautiful, haunting novels about loss, blending literary styles and genres. Valeria Luiselli Valeria Luiselli is a highly-acclaimed Mexican novelist and essayist. Of the authors on this list, she’s probably the author you’re most familiar withâ€"her writing is incredible and she’s received so much well-deserved buzz! She’s received numerous awards, her work has appeared in publications like The New York Times, McSweeney’s and The New Yorker, and she’s been a recipient of the National Book Foundation’s “5 under 35” award.   The Story of My Teeth, translated by Christina MacSweeney, was a finalist for the National Book Critics Circle Award and the Best Translated Book Award and won the Los Angeles Times Prize for Best Fiction. It’s an eccentric and challenging novel about storytelling, lies, and the creation of value and meaning in modern art. Tell Me How It Ends: An Essay in 40 Questions is another incredible work by Luiselli that I can’t recommend enough!

Wednesday, May 13, 2020

Geography of Madagascar

Madagascar  is a large island nation located in the  Indian Ocean  east of Africa and the country Mozambique. It is the fourth largest island in the world and it is an  African country. Madagascars official name is the Republic of Madagascar. The country is sparsely populated with a  population density  of only 94 persons per square mile (36 persons per square kilometer). As such, most of Madagascar is undeveloped, incredibly biodiverse forest land. Madagascar is home to 5% of the worlds species, many of which are native only to Madagascar. Fast Facts: Madagascar Official Name: Republic of MadagascarCapital: AntananarivoPopulation: 25,683,610  (2018)Official Languages: French, MalagasyCurrency: Malagasy ariary (MGA)Form of Government: Semi-presidential republicClimate: Tropical along coast, temperate inland, arid in southTotal Area: 226,657 square miles (587,041 square kilometers)Highest Point: Maromokotro at 9,436 feet (2,876 meters)Lowest Point: Indian Ocean at 0 feet (0 meters) History of Madagascar It is believed that Madagascar was uninhabited until the 1st century CE when sailors from Indonesia arrived on the island. From there, migrations from other Pacific lands as well as Africa increased and various tribal groups began to develop in Madagascar—the largest of which was the Malagasy. The written history of Madagascar did not begin until the 7th century CE when Arabs began setting up trading posts on the islands northern coastal regions.European contact with Madagascar did not begin until the 1500s. At that time, Portuguese captain Diego Dias discovered the island while on a voyage to India. In the 17th century, the French established various settlements along the east coast. In 1896, Madagascar officially became a French colony. Madagascar remained under French control until 1942, when  British troops  occupied the area during World War II. In 1943, the French retook the island from the British and maintained control until the late 1950s. In 1956, Madagascar began moving toward independence and on October 14, 1958, the Malagasy Republic was formed as an independent state within the French colonies. In 1959, Madagascar adopted its first constitution and achieved full independence on June 26, 1960. Government of Madagascar Today, Madagascars government is considered a republic with a legal system based on French civil law and traditional Malagasy laws. Madagascar has an executive branch of government that is made up of a  chief of state  and a head of state, as well as a bicameral legislature consisting of the Senat and the Assemblee Nationale. Madagascars judicial branch of government is comprised of the Supreme Court and the High Constitutional Court. The country is divided into six provinces (Antananarivo, Antsiranana, Fianarantsoa, Mahajanga, Toamasina, and Toliara) for local administration. Economics and Land Use in Madagascar Madagascars economy is currently growing but at a slow pace. Agriculture is the main sector of the economy and employs about 80% of the countrys population. The main agricultural products of Madagascar include coffee, vanilla, sugarcane, cloves, cocoa, rice, cassava, beans, bananas, peanuts, and livestock products. The country does have a small amount of industry, of which the largest are: meat processing, seafood, soap, breweries, tanneries, sugar, textiles, glassware, cement, automobile assembly, paper, and petroleum. In addition, with the rise of  ecotourism, Madagascar has seen a rise in tourism and the related service sector industries. Geography, Climate, and Biodiversity of Madagascar Madagascar is considered a part of southern Africa as it is located in the  Indian Ocean east of Mozambique. It is a large island that has a narrow coastal plain with a high plateau and mountains in its center. Madagascars highest mountain is Maromokotro at 9,435 feet (2,876 m). The climate of Madagascar varies based on location on the island but it is tropical along the coastal regions, temperate inland and arid in the south its portions. Madagascars capital and largest city, Antananarivo, located in the northern part of the country somewhat away from the coast, has a January average high temperature of 82 degrees (28 °C) and a July average low of 50 degrees (10 °C).Madagascar is most well-known around the world for its rich biodiversity and  tropical rainforests. The island is home to about 5% of the worlds plant and animal species, about 80% of whoch are endemic, or native, only to Madagascar. These include all species of  lemurs  and about 9,000 different species of plants. Because of their isolation on Madagascar, many of these endemic species are also threatened or endangered due to increasing  deforestation  and development. To protect its species, Madagascar has many national parks, and nature and wildlife reserves. In addition, there are several  UNESCO certified  World Heritage Sites  on Madagascar called the  Rainforests of the Atsinanana. More Facts About Madagascar Madagascar has a life expectancy of 62.9 years. Its official languages are Malagasy and French. Today, Madagascar has 18 Malagasy tribes, as well as groups of French, Indian Comoran, and Chinese people. Sources Central Intelligence Agency.  CIA - The World Factbook - Madagascar.Infoplease.com.  Madagascar: History, Geography, Government, and Culture.United States Department of State.  Madagascar.

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

Sms Based E Notice Board Free Essays

string(38) " and has an integral SIM card reader\." Abstract The goal of this project is to design an embedded device which can control up to 8 devices by sending a specific SMS message from a cell-phone. This controller is extremely handy at places where we have to control the ON and OFF switching of the devices but no wired connection to that place is available. To implement this, a GSM modem is connected to a programmed microcontroller which would receive the SMS from a reference cell phone. We will write a custom essay sample on Sms Based E Notice Board or any similar topic only for you Order Now The control signal part of the received SMS is extracted and is changed to microcontroller-preferred format. In regular intervals, the modem would also send the local temperature We have selected GSM because the ubiquity of its standard makes international roaming very common between mobile phone operators, enabling subscribers to use their phones in many parts of the world. A PC which is connected to the micro-controller using a serial communication through RS232 can be used for monitoring and transmission of the control signals to the modem. The monitoring is also done by interfacing a LCD to the microcontroller. AT commands were used for controlling the functionality of modem. Main hardware requirements: Renesas SKP16C62P Starter Kit Plus This contains the micro-controller. (used for controlling the different external devices connected as per the SMS received ) GSM modem (GM28 from Sony-Ericsson) This GSM/GPRS terminal equipment is a powerful, compact and self contained unit with standard connector interfaces and has an integral SIM card reader. You read "Sms Based E Notice Board" in category "Papers" It is used for receiving the SMS from the mobile device and then to transmit to the Renesas SKP. A MAX232 chip This converter chip is needed to convert a TTL logic from a Microcontroller (TxD and RxD pins ) to standard serial interfacing for PC (RS232) A DB9 connector This takes the signals coming form the MAX232 chip to the PC. The typical applications of this serial modem is for developing a wide range of equipment like Security and alarms devices Monitoring and control devices Vending machines Utilities devices Fleet Management devices Embedded Project- ECE 5101 Page 3 2. Project Description Renesas SKP16C62P Starter Kit Plus Device 1 Device 2 MAX 232 Device 8 DB9 Connector DB9 Connector GM28 (GSM Modem with SIM card working in 850 MHz /1900 Hz) Antenna Computer (For displaying the received SMS) Figure 1: Block diagram of the project setup Initially the SMS is received from the person authorized to use this setup (destination) by the GSM modem (GM28) is transferred to the Renesas SKP16C62P SKP with the help of a MAX 232 chip. As per the AT commands given by the microcontroller to the modem, the control signal from the SMS is extracted and is used to control the devices connected to it. We have to convert the ‘septets’ of the phone to ‘octets’ because the micro-controller need bytes with 8 bits length ( The ‘septet’ is 1 byte with 7 bits length and ‘octet’ is 1 byte with 8 bits length). All this process is necessary to decode the message from SMS. A program (for extracting the control signal part from received SMS) is loaded into Renesas SKP16C62P SKP, and then the circuit is connected to the modem. The microcontroller now tries to read the SMS from the 1st memory location of the modem and it keeps trying again until the modem receives any (programmed for every one second). Before implementing the control signal part of the SMS, the modem extracts the number from the SMS and verifies if this number has the access to control the device or not. For controlling the devices, the message will be sent in hexa decimal format. The hex data is converted to the equivalent binary and the particular output is enabled. For example if the message is â€Å"AB† the equivalent binary is â€Å"10101011† this implies that the output 1, 3, 5, 7, 8 are enabled and the remaining ports are disabled. We have connected LEDs to the ports of microcontroller to show the output and their status indicates whether the ports are set to ‘ON’ or ‘OFF’. The microcontroller is also programmed to read the temperature from the thermistor every 15 minutes and to send a SMS to the destination number. Embedded Project- ECE 5101 Page 4 3. Device Description 3. 1. Renesas SKP16C62P Starter Kit Plus The SKP16C62P StarterKit Plus (SKP) is a low-cost environment for evaluating M16C/62P group of microcontrollers (MCU) and Renesas Technology America, Inc. software development tools. The SKP board provides an evaluation and development environment for the M16C/62P group of MCU. It has pushbutton switches, LED’s and LCD for user interface. Standard connector ports are available to expand the range of applications through the use of expansion boards, etc. The kit comes with an integrated software development environment, HEW (IDE, C-compiler, assembler, and linker), KD30 Debugger, and FoUSB (Flash-overUSBâ„ ¢) Programmer. A real-time, source-level debug environment is implemented using the KD30 debugging software with the RTA-FoUSB-MON Flash Programmer/In-Circuit Debugger (ICD). The Flash-over-USBTM (FoUSB) Programmer software, with the ICD, allows in-system programming of the M16C/62P flash MCU. The ICD and firmware provide a convenient USB (Universal Serial Bus) interface between the SKP16C62P board and the host PC. This interface reduces resource requirements on the M16C/62P MCU, allows faster code downloads and, can also be used with many other Renesas Flash MCU’s, SKP’s, and user’s target board. Figure 2: SKP16C62P System Connectivity (From the hardware manual of SKP16c62P ) Embedded Project- ECE 5101 Page 5 3. 2 GSM modem: (GM28 from Sony-Ericsson) Figure 3. a Figure 3. b Figure 3. c Figures 3. a, 3. b and 3. c show the different views of the GSM modem GM28 (From the Hardware Manual of GM28 Modem) The Global System for Mobile Communications (GSM) is the most popular standard for mobile phones in the world. It is the European standard for digital cellular service that includes enhanced features. It is based on TDMA technology and is used on 850/1900 MHz. We are using the GM28, a GSM modem from Sony-Ericsson. This is a powerful GSM/GPRS Terminal with compact and self-contained unit. This has standard connector interfaces and has an integral SIM card reader. The modem has a RJ9 connector through which a speaker and microphone can be connected allowing audio calls being established, but this feature is not utilized in this project as only data transfer is needed. Following are few technical details of the modem. Interfaces: †¢ Data: RS232 9–way (V. 28) †¢ Power and Extended I/Os: 5 – 32VDC (RJ11) †¢ Audio 4-wire Handset Interface (RJ9) †¢ Antenna: 50 (FME male) †¢ SIM card reader: 3V/5V interface with SIM detection Features: †¢ ME + SIM phone book management – read/write/find, call screening, groups †¢ SIM Application Toolkit Class 2 †¢ Real Time Clock †¢ Software upgradeable †¢ Audio control †¢ Fixed dialing number †¢ UCS2 16 bit data supported. Embedded Project- ECE 5101 Page 6 SMS features †¢ Supports both Text and PDU modes †¢ MT/MO CBM †¢ Cell Broadcast †¢ Concatenation – up to 6 SMS The TT4030 (SE-GM28) uses the following industry standard connectors to interface with the external application and the GSM network; †¢ †¢ †¢ †¢ †¢ RJ11 (plug-in power supply connector). RJ9 (handset audio connector) Integral SIM card reader. FME male (antenna connector). Sub-D socket, 9 pin (RS232 serial port). 3. 3. Power Connections All electrical connections to the TT4030 (SE-GM28) are designed to meet the standard air (4 kV) and contact (8 kV) discharge ESD tests, of EN 301 489-1. Figure 4 RJ11 connector as power supply to the modem (From the Hardware Manual of GM28 Modem) 3. 4. Antenna Connections The used antenna (Figure 4. a) operates at 850/1900 MHz which is suitable for transmitting and receiving of RF signals for the GSM modem (GM28) used. Some of the key features of this antenna are: †¢ Bandwidth is 280 MHz †¢ VSWR is +3. 0V Signal = 1 (HIGH) lt; -3. V Embedded Project- ECE 5101 Page 9 Pin No. Name Notes/Description 1 DCD Data Carrier Detect 2 RD Receive Data (a. k. a RxD, Rx) 3 TD Transmit Data (a. k. a TxD, Tx) 4 DTR Data Terminal Ready 5 SGND Ground 6 DSR Data Set Ready 7 RTS Request To Send 8 CTS Clear To Send 9 RI Ring Indicator Table 1 Pin description of a DB9 connector 6. GM28 in a Communicati on System Figure 10, Illustrates the main blocks of a wireless communication system using the TT4030 (SE-GM28). It also shows the communication principles of the system. The definitions in the figure are in accordance with the recommendations of GSM 07. 7. The MS (mobile station) represents the TT4030 (SE-GM28) modem plus SIM card. The modem excluding SIM card, is known as the ME (mobile equipment). The TE (terminal equipment) is a micro-controller and is a part of the application. Figure 10. a Main blocks in communication between the GM28 (modem) and the microcontroller (TE) (From the Hardware Manual of GM28 Modem) The end-to-end communication path to be established between the external telemetry/ telematics application and a remote terminal or host, via the GSM network is done through the serial communication. Serial data with flow control according to the RS232 signaling protocol operates between the modem and the external application. The modem performs a set of telecom services (TS) according to GSM standard phase 2+, ETSI and ITU-T. Control of the TT4030 (SE-GM28) is by the external application, via the RS232 serial interface, using a set of AT commands. The TT4030 (SEGM28) supports the full set of AT commands according to GSM 07. 05 and GSM 07. 07. It also supports an extended set of Ericsson proprietary AT commands to add extra functionality. Embedded Project- ECE 5101 Page 10 AT commands are used to operate the modem and have a broad range of Functions including: Configuring general parameters of the modem (SE-GM28) Setting up and controlling communications to and from the GSM Network Configuring the modem to communicate across the RS232 serial interface Obtaining GSM network status information. Figure 10. b Interface between the GM28 (modem) and microcontroller (TE) (From the Hardware Manual of GM28 Modem) The modem also supports the Voice, Data, Fax services but since these are not required for the current application, they are not taken into consideration as of now. . AT commands The AT command set is the fundamental interface with the modem. An AT command is simply a string of characters preceded by the AT prefix that is sent to the modem. The commands typically instruct the modem to perform some action or set some characteristic within the modem. The modem has two states: command state and on-line state. In command state, the modem will accept and re spond to AT commands. In the on-line state, the modem will transmit data, but ignore AT commands. Typically the modem is in the on-line state after dialing. AT commands has the following format: The command is prefixed with AT (Attention) The command is terminated by a carriage return (except the A/ command and escape sequence). The commands can be entered in upper case or lower case. The AT prefix can be in upper case or lower case, but both the A and the T must be the same case. Characters that precede the AT prefix are ignored. Multiple commands can be strung together on a single line and spaces may be included between commands but are not necessary. The command line interpretation begins upon receipt of the carriage return. These commands are used for request information about the current configuration or operational status of the mobile phone/modem and test availability and request the range of valid parameters, when applicable, for an AT command. Embedded Project- ECE 5101 Page 11 General Syntax of AT-Commands: Basic AT [=] [] Extended AT+= [] AT*= [] Read command AT+? AT*? AT? Test command AT+=? AT*=? Response command AT+ : AT* : Important AT command used to Test and Design: 1) ATD To dial a voice call from the modem. 2) AT+IPR To set the baud rate for the modem ( here for our application the baud rate is set as 9600) ) ATA To answer an incoming call. 4) AT+CHUP To hang up the initiated call. 5) AT+CFUN To set the phone functionality. Set to 0 to deactivate the modem. 6) AT+CLIP To identify caller number this command is set to 1 7) AT+CLIR For calling line Identification Restriction. 8) AT+CNUM To identify the subscriber number. 9) AT+CMGR To read the message at particular location . The location num ber is given as index. 10) AT+CMGD To delete the received message 11) AT+CMGS To send the message. 12) AT+CMGF To change the message format to PDU or Text mode. 13) AT+CMGL To see all the list of messages. 4) ATE To enable and disable command echo. 8. Installation and Functionality of modem To install this modem in the communication system to PC, the following procedure is adopted: †¢ †¢ †¢ Select the phone and modem options from the control panel. By browsing the disk for the modem drivers, the modem is selected and configured to a particular port through which it is connected to the PC. The terminal package like HyperTerminal is selected in the initial stage to check the functionality of the AT commands to control the GSM modem and later this hyper terminal is just used to monitor the serially received output. Hence finally a three way communication is established, the modem directly communicates with the micro controller to control the switching of devices externally and the hyper terminal package in PC is used just for monitoring the results (hence only receive and ground of connected to the PC). Embedded Project- ECE 5101 Page 12 †¢ †¢ The parameters for serial communication can be set in two ways; either by terminal equipment or by serial communication with the micro controller. It should be noticed that the DTR pin should be enabled high in the initial tage to turn-on the modem, for this flow control of hardware is to be taken and the communication initially is 115200 bauds/second with 8-n-1 configuration (i. e. 8-Data bits, Parity none and 1-Stop bit). Later the baud rate can be changed to 9600 bps through the AT command: AT+IPR = . The settings for the hyper-terminal should have the default input translation and ASCII setup, the emulation can be either VT100 (preferable) o r Auto-detect. To setup the serial port the following procedure has been followed: †¢ †¢ †¢ Select system from the control panel and thereby select the device manager in the hardware option. Now the exact serial COM port where the modem is configured is selected manually. Select port settings and then bits per second to get the exact baud rate. Now that the modem is configure it’s the task of setting up the volatile profile and enter the AT commands required to select the SIM memory and then extract the text message. Hence, serial communication is established between GM28 and the microcontroller using a DB9 connector with a level shifter (MAX232). A level shifter is connected between the microcontroller (SKP) and the modem/computer and null modem connection is connected for the DB9 connector. The above discussed points are depicted in the Figure 9. Figure 9 Circuit for connecting the microcontroller to the modem/computer Embedded Project- ECE 5101 Page 13 9. Short Message Service (SMS) The GSM GM28 Modem supports the following SMS services. Sending, MO (mobile-originated) with both PDU (protocol data unit) and text mode supported. Receiving, MT (mobile-terminated) with both PDU and text mode supported. CBM (cell broadcast message), a service in which a message is sent to all subscribers located in one or more specific cells in the GSM network. This feature is network dependent. SMS STATUS REPORT according to GSM 03. 40. SMS COMMAND according to GSM 03. 40. It should be noted that the maximum length of an SMS message is 160 characters when using 7- bit encoding. For 8-bit data, the maximum length is 140 characters. The Modem supports up to 6 concatenated messages to extend this function. Before we start working on the application design we should ensure the network subscription status Before the application is implemented, we must ensure that the chosen network provides the necessary telecommunication services. Else, the service provider should be contacted to obtain the necessary information. Since SMS features are used in this application, we have to ensure that these are included in the (voice) subscription. 10. PDU SMS format: There are two ways of sending and receiving SMS messages: by text mode and by PDU (protocol description unit) mode. We can switch from text mode to PDU mode and vice versa by selecting the AT+CMGF command. If AT+CMGF = 0 then PDU mode is selected and if the mode is 1 then text mode is selected. The text mode is just an encoding of the bit stream represented by the PDU mode. If we read the message on the phone, the phone will choose a proper encoding. An application capable of reading incoming SMS messages can thus use text mode or PDU mode. If text mode is used, the application is bound to the set of preset encoding options. In some cases, that’s just not good enough. If PDU mode is used, any encoding can be implemented. The PDU string contains not only the message, but also a lot of metainformation about the sender, its SMS service center, the time stamp etc. But as of now for our application we require the phone number of the caller for authentication and the length of the message and the text message which contains the binary message. Let us take a example for the text message of â€Å"abcdef†. This message contains apart from the basic text message a lot of redundant data (meta information about the sender). In PDU mode the SMS looks like: 07914140279542F7000B816187220731F700006010413283900A0661F1985C3603 In TEXT mode the SMS looks like: +CMGR: â€Å"REC READ†,†16782270137†³,,†06/01/14,23:56:1720†³,129,0,0,0,†+14047259247†³,145,6 abcdef Embedded Project- ECE 5101 Page 14 The octets of the PDU message contain lots of information, in the above example the PDU can be divided and different octets signify the following information: 07 Length of SMSC information. 1 Type of address of SMSC. 4140279542F7 Encoded Service center number. 00 First octet of SMS delivery message. 0B Address length of the sender message. 81 Type of address of the sender number. 6187220731F7 Sender number with a trailing F. (number is 16872270137). 00 TP-Protocol Identification Address. 00 TP-Data c oding Scheme. 601041328390 TP-SCTS Time stamp. 0A TP-User data length. 0661F1985C3603 Encoded Message â€Å"abcdef†. All the octets are hexa-decimal 8-bit octets, except the Service center number, the sender number and the timestamp; they are decimal semi-octets. The message part in the end of the PDU string consists of hexa-decimal 8-bit octets, but these octets represent 7-bit data. Basically the transformation of the septets to the octets is based on the GSM 03. 38 standard. This is helpful when we try to communicate with the PDU mode but if we use the CMGF command then text mode is activated to get the converted text message. So to get the message in the Text message we need to send the following commands AT+CMGF=1 to activate the text mode AT+CMGS=1 to check whether the modem supports the SMS message or not. AT+CMGR=I to read the message at the location I in the SIM card. 11. Code /*******************************************************************/ /* FILE :main. c DATE : Jan 2nd 2006 /* */ DESCRIPTION :Main Program To receive SMS from GM28 and to extract the control information part, then to control LEDs accordingly. Send the ambient temperature as SMS back to the user. AUTHORS: B. VAMSEE KRISHNA ; B. PRANEETH KUMAR */ /******************************************************************/ #include â€Å"skp_bsp. h†// include SKP board support package #include â€Å"string. h† void uartinit(); Embedded Project- ECE 5101 Page 15 unsigned char result; char sms_text[200],sms_msg[10],num_text[10]; unsigned int f,f1,t,time=0,k=0,count=0,p=0; /* Prototype declarations */ void mcu_init(void); // MCU initialization void main(void); void timer_init(void); void uartinit(void); int map(char); #pragma INTERRUPT rx_isr void rx_isr(void); /* DEFINE QUEUES*/ #define Q_SIZE (200) typedef struct { unsigned char Data[Q_SIZE]; unsigned int Head; // points to oldest data element unsigned int Tail; // points to next free space unsigned int Size; // quantity of elements in queue Q_T; Q_T tx_q, rx_q; int Q_Empty(Q_T * q) { return q-;gt;Size == 0; } int Q_Full(Q_T * q) { return q-;gt;Size == Q_SIZE; } int Q_Enqueue(Q_T * q, unsigned char d) { // if queue is full, abort rather than overwrite and return // an error code if (! Q_Full(q)) { q-;gt;Data[q-;gt;Tail++] = d; Embedded Project- ECE 5101 Page 16 q-;gt;Tail %= Q_SIZE; q-;gt;Size++; return 1; // success } else return 0; // failure } unsigned c har Q_Dequeue(Q_T * q) { // Must check to see if queue is empty before dequeueing unsigned char t=0; if (! Q_Empty(q)) { t = q-;gt;Data[q-;gt;Head]; -;gt;Data[q-;gt;Head++] = 0; // empty unused entries for debugging q-;gt;Head %= Q_SIZE; q-;gt;Size–; } return t; } void Q_Init(Q_T * q) { unsigned int i; for (i=0; iData[i] = 0; // to simplify our lives when debugging q-gt;Head = 0; q-gt;Tail = 0; q-gt;Size = 0; } void timer_init(void) { //Timer initialisation ta0mr = 0x80;//timer mode ta0 = 0x927C;//for 50 msec delay ta0ic = 0x03;//timer priority tabsr=0x01; // starting the timer Embedded Project- ECE 5101 Page 17 } int map(char c) { int a=(int)c; switch (a) { case 48: return(0); break; case 49: eturn(1); break; case 50: return(2); break; case 51: return(3); break; case 52: return(4); break; case 53: return(5); break; case 54: return(6); break; case 55: return(7); break; case 56: return(8); Embedded Project- ECE 5101 Page 18 break; case 57: return(9); break; case 65: //returns 10 if ‘A’ is entered return(10); break; case 97: //returns 10 if ‘a’ is entered return(10); break; case 66: //returns 10 if ‘B’ is entered return(11); break; case 98: //returns 10 if ‘b’ is entered return(11); break; case 67: //returns 10 if ‘C’ is entered return(12); break; ase 99: //returns 10 if ‘c’ is entered return(12); break; case 68: //returns 10 if ‘D’ is entered return(13); break; case 100: //returns 10 if ‘d’ is entered return(13); break; case 69: //returns 10 if ‘E’ is entered return(14); break; case 101: //returns 10 if ‘e’ is entered Embedded Project- ECE 5101 Page 19 return(14); break; case 70: //returns 10 if ‘F’ is entered return(15); break; case 102: //returns 10 if ‘f’ is entered return(15); break; default: break; } } #pragma INTERRUPT timer_a0 void timer_a0(void) // the timer is set for every 50 milliseconds How to cite Sms Based E Notice Board, Papers

Tuesday, May 5, 2020

Trans-Pacific Partnership (TPP) and the Controversy Surrounding It

Question: What Is Trans-Pacific Partnership (TPP) and the Controversy Surrounding It? Answer: Introduction A free trade agreement (FTA) refers to the cooperation among countries that have agreed to eliminate trade barriers such as tariffs and import duties to facilitate trade activities between the countries involved (Cui Jiang, 2012). FTAs are instrumental strategies of opening foreign markets as it reduces barriers to trade. As an economic policy, FTAs allow for exports and imports all the involved countries at low or no tariffs. Due to this, it is believed that FTAs brings about a win-win results for all the countries involved. However, economists and policymakers have criticized FTAs arguing that they are always controversial in nature, particularly due to the perceived benefits and drawbacks associated with them. Examples of popular FTSs include the Trans-Pacific Partnership Agreement (TPP), Free Trade Area of the Americas (FTAA), and the North Atlantic Free Trade Area (NAFTA). FTAs have a direct impact on employees, employers, managers, and other key stakeholders. In this regard, t his essay is going to address the controversial nature of FTAs by discussing the advantages and disadvantages of FTAs drawing illustrations from the Trans-Pacific Partnership Agreement. Trans-Pacific Partnership (TPP) and the controversy surrounding it TPP refers to a free agreement that was negotiated among 12 countries, namely Canada, Brunei, Chile, USA, Japan, Malaysia, Peru, Singapore, Australia, Vietnam, and New Zealand towards 2015 (Peter, 2016). If implemented, the TPP has significant benefits to the partner countries, for example, it would increase the access to new markets for the goods and services that are produced by the member states. The TPP was formed with the goal of providing a transparent and predictable environment for business activities. Upon its ratification, the TPP will ensure a flowing environment for investment and trade activities through the establishment of policies and regulations that are transparent (Australian Government, 2017). It will result in the reduction of costs of imports and exports to promote regional economic growth by eliminating the challenges to trade activities. Despite this, the TPP has been regarded by some partners, particularly the US as very controversial in nature because it wil l create loopholes for corporations in the US and Australia to sue one another in extraterritorial tribunals, violation of copyright rights, and loss of jobs (Peter, 2016). Advantages of FTAs One of the advantages of FTAs is that it brings about a competitive edge to the key stakeholders in such as producers and manufacturers in the countries involved (Doan, Mare, Lyer, 2015). Basic policies and regulations that bind the countries involved in the agreement enable the manufacturers of particular products in these countries to specialize in the production of good and services that they produce, after which they will receive preferential treatment in their markets, hence, increased generation of revenue. For example, the TPP aims at increasing trade activities by expanding the markets for partner countries. FTAs enable manufacturers and producers to increase their market share in other foreign countries, a step that enables them to make more profits. Key stakeholders such as the consumers of products and services in the countries involved will enjoy the benefits of reduced prices of commodities due to free trade agreements (Cui Jiang, 2012). Economists and policy makers argue that the formation of FTAs reduces the costs of imports and exports in the various countries that are involved. The reduced cost of exports and imports have a direct impact in the reduction of prices of the commodities because of the reduced costs of production of commodities. This brings about the lowering of prices at which the manufacturers offer their products to the consumers. As a result, the consumers can acquire goods and services at affordable costs, for example, consumers in Brunei and Malaysia will acquire vehicles from Japan and US at affordable prices upon the ratification of TPP. Besides, the consumers can purchase products that cannot be produced locally in their countries. FTAs are beneficial to employees because they increase employment opportunities among all the various countries involved in the partnership (Kang Bael, 2013). The formation of FTAs allows for the outsourcing of labor at a much-reduced courts from the countries in the agreement. This creates widespread employment opportunities for individuals in other countries, for instance, the FTA agreement that exists between China and New Zealand has improved the rate of employment in these two countries (Kang Bael, 2013). This has reduced the rate of unemployment and poverty, hence, improved economic growth and regional integration. TPP as an FTA was formed with the goal of eradicating the issue of unemployment among the twelve countries involved. It has rules and regulations that allow the free movement of workers from the involved countries. For instance, countries like Japan and US would offer employment of all member countries into their massive manufacturing industries. In addition to thi s, the employers can acquire cheap labor from the member countries. This lowers the cost of production, which in turn results in the cost of products and services. Disadvantages of FTAs As already alluded in the introduction, the formation of FTAs such as the TPP and NAFTA come along with numerous controversial issues. This is because of the widespread negative impacts that the trade agreements have on employees, employers, managers, and other key stakeholders in the countries involved as discussed in the section below. The formation of FTAs is controversial because it comes along with significant disadvantages to employees in some of the countries that are involved in the partnership (Sandrey Grinsted, 2008). This is because it contributes to massive loss of jobs resulting from the increased job outsourcing by employers in the major industries within the involved countries. The ability to outsource cheap labor is a major advantage to the employers; however, it is a major blow to the local employees in the involved countries because it promotes the arrival of foreigners who take away the jobs of local employees in some countries (Ramasamy, Yeung, Laforet, 2012). For example, the ratification of the TPP has been widely opposed by the American employees and labor and trade unions because of the predicted potential massive loss of jobs that it will cause in the country (BBC News, 2017). Upon ratification of the TPP, workers from Japan, New Zealand and other partners in the TPP partnership will flock into the US due to the perceived notion of readily available opportunities. Besides the loss of employment, the overflow of foreign labor will result in the reduced wages because of the arrival of cheap labor. The formation of FTAs is also a controversial topic because it is a major threat to the growth of budding industries in some countries in the involved countries (Buckley, Clegg, Cross, Liu, Voss, Zheng, 2007). This is because the elimination of the barriers allow partner countries to establish their subsidiary companies in other countries or export large volumes of their products in partner states, and this may kill the emerging firms. For example, the FTA between China and New Zealand interfered with the growth of small firms in both countries. This is because the Chinese firms gained the rights to operate freely in New Zealand, and this brought about stiff competitions in the New Zealand markets (Cai, 2012). The Chinese companies that produce similar products to those of the local New Zealand industries have stormed and dominated New Zealands local markets by producing substitute products and services in the country (Antell Wallgren, 2012). A similar scenario is also predicted in the TPP partnership as multi-national industries, for example, motor manufacturing industries from Japan and the US will kill the budding motor and other industrial manufacturing firms in countries like Malaysia and Brunei. Debates will rise over the benefits of importing cheap cars or the need to grow manufacturing industries in such countries, leading to unending debates among policy makers in the involved countries. FTAs are controversial because they reduce profit margins of local investors in the economies of the involved countries. According to Durmaz and Tasdemir (2014), the presence of substitute products reduces a companys performance, and hence, the Chinese companies have reduced the performance of New Zealands companies. Free trade agreements allow foreign companies to storm the markets of partner countries with products and services. These products and services may be highly similar, hence, serve as substitutes for the locally produced products. This significantly reduces market share and consequently, reduced profit margins. This is very harmful to investors and managers of local firms because it leads to the collapse of these firms. Conclusion In summary, the formation of FTAs is a very controversial topic among economists and policy makers in various countries. This is because of the numerous benefits and drawbacks it has on employees, managers, employers, and key stakeholders in the economy. The benefits of FTAs such as NAFTA and TPP is the increased access to markets for products of the involved countries due to the elimination of trade barriers. However, FTAs are controversial because of the drawbacks it has on the employees, employers, managers, and investors. FTAs reduces market shares and profit margins of organizations. It also promotes the outsourcing of workers, which is a major contributor to retrenchment and layoff. Finally, it kills the growth of budding industries in the involved countries due to the invasion of the market by multi-national companies from partner countries. References Cui, L. Jiang, F., 2012, State ownership effect on firms FDI ownership decisions under institutional pressure: A study of Chinese outward investing firms, Journal of International Business Studies, pp. 1-21. Doi:10.1057/jibs.2012.1 Kang, Y. Bael, T., 2013, Barriers to New Zealand-China economic integration: A case of the dairy industry and beyond, New Zealand Journal of Asian Studies, Vol. 15, no. 1, pp. 1-7. Sandrey, R. Grinsted, H., 2008, China and New Zealand: an assessment of the recent FTA agreement. Tralac Working Paper No 5. [Online]. Available: www.tralac.co.za. Antell, F. Wallgren, C., 2012, Foreign market entry: the strategic decision of foreign market entry by service firms. Masters. Linnaeus University. Doan, T., Mare, M., Lyer, K., 2015, Productivity spillovers from foreign direct investment in New Zealand, New Zealand Economic Papers, Vol. 49, no. 3, pp. 249-275. Buckley, P. J., Clegg, L. J., Cross, A. R., Liu, X., Voss, H., Zheng, P., 2007, The determinants of Chinese outward foreign direct investment, Journal of International Business Studies, Vol. 38, pp. 499-518. Cai, P. Y. (2012). Representations of Chinese overseas investment in the media. East Asia Forum. Canberra. Durmaz, Y. Tasdemir, A., 2014, A Theoretical Approach to the Methods Introduction to International Markets, International Journal of Business and Social Science, Vol. 5, no. 6(1), pp. 47-53. Ramasamy, B., Yeung, M. Laforet, S., 2012, Chinas outward foreign direct investment: Location choice and firm ownership. Journal of World Business, Vol. 47, no. 1, pp. 17-25. Peter, M. (2016, November 13). TPP: Trans-Pacific Partnership dead, before Trump even takes office. [Online]: Available at: https://www.smh.com.au/federal-politics/political-news/transpacific-partnership-dead-before-trump-even-takes-office-20161113-gso9kn.html [Accessed May 1 2017]. BBC News. (2017, January 23). TPP: What is it and why does it matter? [Online]: Available at: https://www.bbc.com/news/business-32498715 [Accessed May 1 2017]. Australian Government. (2017, February 7). About the Trans-Pacific Partnership Agreement. [Online]: Available at: https://dfat.gov.au/trade/agreements/tpp/pages/trans-pacific-partnership-agreement-tpp.aspx [Accessed May 1 2017]

Monday, March 30, 2020

Bidirectional Visitor Counter free essay sample

Visitor counting is simply a measurement of the visitor traffic entering and exiting offices, malls, sports venues, etc. Counting the visitors helps to maximize the efficiency and effectiveness of employees, floor area and sales potential of an organization . Visitor counting is not limited to the entry/exit point of a company but has a wide range of applications that provide information to management on the volume and flow of people throughout a location. A primary method for counting the visitors involves hiring human auditors to stand and manually tally the number of visitors who pass by a certain location. But human-based data collection comes at great expense. Here is a low-cost microcontroller based visitor counter that can be used to know the number of persons at a place. All the components required are readily available in the market and the circuit is easy to build . Two IR transmitter-receiver pairs are used at the passage: one pair comprising IR transmitter IR TX1 and receiver phototransistor T1 is installed at the entry point of the passage, while the other pair comprising IR transmitter IR TX2 and phototransistor(TSOP sensor) T2 is installed at the exit of the passage. We will write a custom essay sample on Bidirectional Visitor Counter or any similar topic specifically for you Do Not WasteYour Time HIRE WRITER Only 13.90 / page The IR signals from the IR LEDs should continuously fall on the respective phototransistors, so proper orientation of the transmitters and phototransistors is necessary. Two similar sections detect interruption of the IR beam and generate clock pulse for the microcontroller. The microcontroller controls counting and displays the number of persons present inside the hall is also displayed on the seven segment displays. It receives the signals from the sensors, and this signal is operated under the control of software which is stored in ROM. Microcontroller AT89S52 continuously monitor the Infrared Receivers, When any object pass through the IR Receivers then the IR Rays falling on the receiver are obstructed , this obstruction is sensed by the Microcontroller. Block Diagram The basic block diagram of the bidirectional visitor counter with automatic light controller is shown in the above figure. Mainly this Block diagram consist of the following essential blocks. 1. Power Supply 2. Entry and Exit sensor circuit 3. AT 89c2052 micro-controller 1. Power Supply:- Here we used +12V and +5V dc power supply. The main function of this block is to provide the required amount of voltage to essential circuits. +12 voltage is given. +12V is given to relay driver. To get the +5V dc power supply we have used here IC 7805, which provides the +5V dc regulated power supply. 2. Enter and Exit Circuits:- This is one of the main part of our project. The main intention of this block is to sense the person. For sensing the person and light we are using the light dependent register (LDR). By using this sensor and its related circuit diagram we can count the persons. 3. AT89C2051 Microcontroller IC AT89C205(IC2) is at the heart of the circuit. It is a 20-pin, 8-bit microcontroller with 2 kb of Flash programmable and erasable read-only memory (PEROM), 128 bytes of RAM, 15 input/output (I/O) lines, two 16-bit timer/counters, a five-vector two-level interrupt architecture, a full duplex serial port, a precision analogue comparator, on-chip oscillator and clock circuitry. CIRCUIT DESCRIPTION: There are two main parts of the circuits. 1. Transmission Circuits (Infrared LEDs) 2. Receiver Circuit (Sensors) 1. Transmission circuit In this circuit, a negative pulse applied at pin 2 triggers an internal flip-flop that turns off pin 7s discharge transistor, allowing C1 to charge up through R1. At the same time, the flip-flop brings the output (pin 3) level to high. When capacitor C1 as charged up to about 2/3 Vcc, the flip-flop is triggered once again, this time making the pin 3 output low and turning on pin 7s discharge transistor, which discharges C1 to ground. This circuit, in effect, produces a pulse at pin 3 whose width t is just the product of R1 and C1, i. e. , t=R1C1. IR transmission circuit is used to generate the modulated 36 kHz IR signal. The IC555 in the transmitter side is to generate 36 kHz square wave. Adjust the preset in the transmitter to get a 38 kHz signal at the o/p. around 1. 4K we get a 38 kHz signal. Then you point it over the sensor and its o/p will go low when it senses the IR signal of 38 kHz. This circuit diagram shows how a 555 timer IC is configured to function as a basic monostable multivibrator . A monostable multivibrator is a timing circuit that changes state once triggered, but returns to its original state after a certain time delay. It got its name from the fact that only one of its output states is stable. It is also known as a one-shot. 2. Receiver circuit The IR transmitter will emit modulated 38 kHz IR signal and at the receiver we use TSOP1738 (Infrared Sensor). The output goes high when the there is an interruption and it return back to low after the time period determined by the capacitor and resistor in the circuit. I. e. around 1 second. CL100 is to trigger the IC555 which is configured as monostable multivibrator. So when anybody crosses the transmitter receive pair the output from TSOP sensor will high and microcontroller will know that the interruption and decide whether increment the count decrement from the loaded program. After receiving signal from sensor microcontroller will define whether it was enter or exit by using following algorithm.. 1 . If the sensor 1 is interrupted first then the microcontroller will look for the sensor 2. And if it is interrupted then the microcontroller will increment the count . 2. If the sensor 2 is interrupted first then the microcontroller will look for the sensor 1. And if it is interrupted then the microcontroller will decrement the count. Advantage o Low cost o Easy to use o Implement in single door Disadvantage It is used only when one single person cuts the rays of the sensor hence it cannot be used when two person cross simultaneously†¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦. CODE : If you need the code of this project please join this site as member . After joining as member post your request in comments .. Dont write your mail id . Remember the coding of this project will be strictly given to the members of this site only